Unformatted text preview: CLAS 210 – Introductory La4n Friday, September 18 !
! LECTURE 5 -‐ CHAPTER 1 Homework correc4on Noun morphology: 2nd declension Comments on cases Enlightening endings Preposi4onal proposi4ons And… Homework assignment HOMEWORK 1. What is the main diﬀerence between the underlying sentence structure of English and LaGn? 2. What is the diﬀerence between a transiGve and an intransiGve verb? How does that diﬀerence help us translate? 3. What is the underlying word order of an English sentence with a transiGve verb? 4. What is the underlying order of an English sentence with an IO? 5. What common English preposiGon is not found in LaGn? 6. What is a linking verb and what does it normally take? 7. What do we expect following a preposiGon in both English and LaGn? What cases can follow preposiGons in LaGn? 8. Are all nouns in -‐a, -‐ae feminine? In the following sentences, put the LaGn word in parentheses into its correct LaGn form and translate the complete sentence. IdenGfy the syntacGc funcGon of the word before choosing the LaGn form. 1. Puella ___________ amat. amat: loves (poeta, -‐ae, m.) 2. Italia __________ non est. non: not; est: is (insula, -‐ae, f.) 3. Femina ____________ donum dat. donum: giW, DO; dat: gives (deae, -‐arum, f.) 4. Fama ________________ magna est. magna: great (feminae, -‐arum, f.) 5. O _____________ , anima te amo. te: you, DO (patria, -‐ae, f.) ‘Decipher’ this LaGn sentence There are several ambiguous forms, so deﬁne all possibiliGes, then use context to produce a valid sentence. Poeta, insulae regina ﬁliis nautae aurum dat. aurum: gold, DO dat: gives 2ND DECLENSION NOUNS IN -‐us, ∅ a. case endings sg. case ending pl. nom. gen. dat. acc. abl. voc. -‐us, ∅ -‐i -‐o -‐um -‐o -‐e, ∅ nom. gen. abl. dat. gen. voc. case ending -‐i -‐orum -‐is -‐os -‐is -‐i sg. nom. gen. dat. acc. abl. voc. case ending -‐us, ∅2 -‐i3 -‐o1 -‐um -‐o2 -‐e, ∅4 pl. nom. gen. dat. acc. abl. voc. case ending -‐i3 -‐orum -‐is -‐os -‐is -‐i3 1 most 2nd declension nouns in -‐us are masculine 2 some 2nd declension nouns do not have a case ending in the nom. sg., e.g. vir, puer, aper, ager. In some, e.g. puer, pueri the e of the nom. sg. is part of the stem and remains throughout the paradigm. In others, e.g. aper, apri the e of the nom. sg. is not part of the stem and does not appear in any other case except for the voc. sg. The stem must be iden4ﬁed from the gen. sg. form. 3 to correctly iden4fy the syntac4c func4on of a noun in a sentence, ambiguous endings, such as -‐i which occurs in the gen. sg. and nom. / voc. pl. must be carefully interpreted 4 the voc. sg. of • nouns in -‐us is -‐e, e.g. amicus: amice • nouns in -‐ius is ∅, e.g. Vergilius: Vergili • in nouns in ∅ is iden4cal to the nom. sg. • of deus ‘god’ does not occur in classical La4n b. 2nd declension paradigm: nouns in -‐us, ∅ sg. pl. nom. amicus puer aper amici pueri gen. amici pueri apri amicorum puerorum aprorum dat. amico puero apro amicis pueris apris acc. amicum puerum aprum amicos pueros apros abl. amico puero apro amicis pueris apris voc. amice aper amici apri puer pueri apri 4. 2nd declension nouns in -‐um a. case endings sg. pl. nom. -‐um2 -‐a2/3 gen. -‐i -‐orum dat. -‐o -‐is acc. -‐um2 -‐a2/3 abl. -‐o -‐is voc. -‐um2 -‐a2/3 1 2nd declension nouns in -um are neuter
2 for all neuter nouns, no matter what declension, the nom., acc. and
voc. sg. and nom. acc. and voc. pl. endings are identical.
3The neuter nom., acc. and voc. pl. ending of any declension is a –a. b. 2nd declension paradigm: nouns in -‐um sg. pl. nom. periculum consilium pericula consilia gen. periculi consilii periculorum consiliorum dat. periculo consilio periculis consiliis acc. periculum consilium pericula consilia abl. periculo periculis consiliis voc. periculum consilium pericula consilia consilio VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES a. the nominaGve case • is used in La4n to express the subject of a verb • a linking verb (copulaGve verb) never takes a DO, but is normally completed by either a noun or an adjec4ve in the nomina4ve case, the subject complement (SC) or predicate nominaGve/predicate adjecGve e.g. John became Prime Minister. Mary seems happy. VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES b. the geniGve case • the most frequent use is to qualify or describe another noun (descripGve geni4ve), expressed in English by the use of the preposi4on ‘of’ e.g. the art of war • the possessive geni4ve is normally found with a noun deno4ng a person or other animate being e.g. Tom’s bicycle, the tail of the dog • the English preposi4on ‘of’ is never found in La4n: the geniGve case itself signals the rela4onship denoted by ‘of’. The preposi4on or ‘s/s’ must by used in English to express the La4n geni4ve. • a noun in the geni4ve case func4ons as an adjecGval modiﬁer to another noun VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES c. the daGve case • with verbs that permit the construc4on (e.g. give, send, show, tell) the da4ve case is used in La4n to express the IO, the receiver of the direct object. In English, the IO is normally placed aWer the verb but before the DO. e.g. John gave Mary the book. • in English, the IO can also be expressed aWer the DO by using the preposi4ons ‘to’ and ‘for’ e.g. John gave the book to Mary. • in La4n, the IO (which is normally a person) never follows a preposi4on. The daGve case itself signals the rela4onship denoted by the preposi4ons ‘to’/’for in English’. VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES c. the daGve case • is used in La4n to express the person or thing aﬀected by or interested in the ac4on of the verb. This daGve of reference is expressed in English with the same preposi4ons ‘to’/’for’. e.g. For me, La4n is great fun! VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES d. the accusaGve case • is used in La4n with a transiGve verb to express the direct object of that verb e.g. John saw Mary. • is used a]er various preposi4ons in La4n, par4cularly those that express moGon toward, into, around or through e.g. John went to school. VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES e. the ablaGve case • has many various uses which will be learned • is used a]er various preposi4ons in La4n, par4cularly those that express separaGon (‘from’), associaGon or instrument (“with’ or ‘by’), and locaGon in space or 4me (‘in’, ‘on’ or ‘at’) e.g. John came from Italy. (La4n preposi4on ab + abl.) Brutus went with Caesar to the Forum. (La4n cum + abl.) Brutus killed Caesar with a knife. (no La4n preposi4on) VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES e. the ablaGve case
• in La4n, a noun in the abla4ve case a]er a preposi4on that requires the abla4ve can be deﬁned as a preposi4onal complement. For a noun in the abla4ve without a preposi4on, the case usage should be speciﬁed. e.g. Brutus killed Caesar with a knife. (no La4n preposi4on) abla4ve of instrument/means VOCABULARY NOTES 1. COMMENTS ON CASES f. the vocaGve case
• in La4n, a noun in the voca4ve case is used for direct address (DA) • except for the the 2nd declension, the voca4ve and nomina4ve case endings are iden4cal • a noun in the voca4ve case is never the gramma4cal subject of the sentence, even if this makes sense in context e.g. Mary, go home! (The subject here is an implied ‘you’, not ‘Mary’. This can be seen clearly from the verb ‘go’, rather than ‘goes’, as in ‘Mary goes home’.) VOCABULARY NOTES 2. ENLIGHTENING ENDINGS • several important nouns can decline according to the 1st and 2nd declension in order to show feminine vs. masculine gender e.g. dea, deae, f.: goddess vs. deus, -‐i, m.: god ﬁlia, -‐ae, f.: daughter ﬁlius, -‐ii, m.: son • in such nouns, the regular daGve and ablaGve plural endings would give deis and ﬁliis in both the 1st and 2nd declension • in order to diﬀeren4ate between the M and F forms, the 1st declension ending is replaced by -‐bus, (borrowed from the 3rd declension) giving deabus and ﬁliabus • the 2nd declension ending -‐is remains unchanged VOCABULARY NOTES 2. ENLIGHTENING ENDINGS • 2nd declension stems ending in -‐i (e.g. ﬁlius, consilium) have two possible geniGve singular endings, -‐i or -‐! (the case ending has merged with the stem-‐ﬁnal -‐i ), giving either ﬁlii or ﬁli, consilii or consili. Only the -‐i ending is given in the paradigms. • in 2nd declension nouns in -‐us, -‐! or -‐um the voca4ve singular is nom. sg. -‐us -‐ius -‐! -‐um voc. sg. -‐e -‐! like nom. like nom. e.g. amice ﬁli puer templum VOCABULARY NOTES 2. ENLIGHTENING ENDINGS • the 2nd declension noun deus is irregular in the plural and has to be memorized! sg. pl. deus dei deo deum deum di / dei deorum / deum dis deos dis nom. / voc. gen. dat. acc. abl. VOCABULARY NOTES 3. PREPOSITIONAL PROPOSITIONS in ‘on’ ad ‘toward’ in ‘into’ accusaGve moGon toward a / ab ‘(away) from’ in ‘in’ ablaGve locaGon e / ex ‘(out) from’ geniGve moGon from VOCABULARY NOTES 4. AND… La4n et has to be translated carefully 1. as a coordinaGng conjuncGon (coordinator), et ‘and’ links iden4cal syntac4c elements (noun and noun, phrase and phrase, clause and clause, etc.). It stands between the elements it links, just like English ‘and’. e.g. nauta et agricola ‘the sailor and the farmer’ 2. when et is found before and a]er the elements it joins, it is translated ‘both … and’ e.g. et nauta et agricola ‘both the sailor and the farmer’ 3. when et does not link iden4cal syntac4c elements, it normally func4ons as an adverb that emphasizes a single word e.g. et vir… ‘even / also the man…’ ; the man, too, …’ VOCABULARY NOTES 4. AND… La4n -‐que ‘and’ is an encliGc coordinaGng conjuncGon. It is aeached as a suﬃx to the second of the two iden4cal syntac4c elements it links which are o]en opposite or complementary. e.g. vir feminaque ‘the man and the woman’ / ‘the husband and the wife’ LECTURE 4 HOMEWORK Ø memorize the second declension nouns paradigms Ø do the following exercises • WKBK: Drill 4, chapter 1 a. A, B, C, D (for your own beneﬁt) b. E, F, G, H, I, 1-‐5 (for correc4on in class) ...
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- Fall '12
- Declension, La4n