SOQ13_FALL - General Biology Study Objective Questions 13...

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1 General Biology Study Objective Questions # 13 Genes & How They Work Reading: Raven & Johnson Chapter 15 1. Describe transcription and translation . Which nucleic acids are involved in each step? Transcription- synthesis of RNA from the DNA, initiated when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a promoter binding site which is located at the beginning of the gene. As the polymerase moves along the strand of DNA it adds the corresponding RNA nucleotide to the growing mRNA strand. Translation- process where the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA transcript is translated into the amino acid sequences of a polypeptide. The sites of translation are ribosomes. 2. What is the central dogma of molecular biology? Is it always true? Information passes from the genes (DNA) to an RNA copy of the gene, which directs the sequential assembly of a chain of nucleotides to make a protein. 3. Describe the three types of RNA in terms of structure and function.
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