Government exam 2 definitions - Chapter 12 Congress...

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Chapter 12: CongressConstituency– the residents in the area from which an official is electedBicameral– characterized as having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses’ distinguished from unicameral Sociological representation– a type of representation in which representative have the same racial, gender, ethnic, religious, or educational backgrounds as their constituents. It is based on the principle that if two individuals are similar in background, character, interests, and perspectives, then one could correctly represent the other’s viewsAgency representation– the type of representation in which a representative is held accountable to a constituency if he or she fails to represent that constituency properly. This is incentive for good representation when the personal backgrounds, views, and interests of the representative differ from those of his or her constituency Incumbency– holding a political office for which one it running Term limits- legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serveApportionment– the process, occurring after every decennial census, that allocates congressional seats among the 50 statesRedistricting– the process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representatives. This happens every 10 years to reflect shifts in population or in response to legalchallenges to existing districts Gerrymandering– the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party Patronage– the resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters Pork barrel (or pork)– appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are oftennot needed but that are created so that local representatives can win reelection in their home districts Private bill– a proposal in Congress to provide a specific person with some kind of relief, such as a special exemption from immigration quotas Conference– a gathering of House of Republicans every to years to their house leaders. Democrats call their gathering the caucusSpeaker of the House– the chief presiding officer of the House of Representatives. The Speaker is the most important party and House leader, and can influence the legislative agenda, the fate of individual pieces of legislation, and members’ positions within the HouseMajority leader– the elected leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speakerof the House Minority leader – the elected leader of the minority party in the House or SenateWhip – a party member in the House or Senate responsible for coordinating the party’s

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