SOQ__11_Answers - General Biology I Study Objective...

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General Biology I Study Objective Questions #11 Patterns of Inheritance Reading: Raven et. al., Chapter 13 1. Dominant gene – trait expressed in F1 generation Recessive gene – trait not expressed in F1 generation F1 generation – first filial generation, all individuals show dominant trait F2 generation – second filial generation, some individuals show recessive trait Allele – alternative forms of factor, leading to alternative forms of character Genotype – totality of alleles Phenotype – physical appearance Heterozygous – contains two different alleles Homozygous – contains two of the same alleles 2. Mendel’s Model of Heredity 1) Parents do not transmit physiological traits directly to their offspring. Instead they transmit discrete information about the traits, called “factors” 2) Each individual receives two factors that may code for the same trait or for two alternative traits for a character 3) Not all copies of a factor are identical 4) The two alleles, one contributed by the male and one by the female, do not influence each other in any way 5) The presence of a particular allele does not ensure that the trait encoded by it will be expressed in an individual carrying that allele When Mendel crossed two contrasting varieties, he found that in the second generation 25% of the offspring were pure-breeding for the dominant trait, 25%, 50% were hybrid for two traits and exhibited the dominant trait, and 25% were pure-breeding for the recessive trait Mendelian ratio 1 : 2 : 1 3. Mendel’s cross of pea plants differing in flower color. All of the offspring of the first cross (F1 generation) are Pp heterozygotes with purple flowers. When two heterozygous F1 individuals are crossed of self-fertilized, three kinds of F2 offspring are
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HUMANITIES 111 taught by Professor Blume during the Winter '08 term at Union.

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SOQ__11_Answers - General Biology I Study Objective...

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