SOQs - Biology Notes Study Objectives #1 Biology- Study of...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology Notes Study Objectives #1 Biology- Study of Life Properties of Life- 1. Order- Cellular structure 2. Sensitivity- Response to stimuli 3. Growth- metabolism 4. Regulation- coordination of internal functions 5. Reproduction/Replication- maintenance of the species 6. Homeostasis- maintain constant internal condition different from the external environment 7. Development- Gene directed changes as multicellular organisms grow and mature Hierarchical organization of living organisms Within cells W/in multicellular organisms Among Organisms Atoms-Angstrom Tissue-um, mm Population-m, km Molecule-nm Organ-mm, cm, m Species-m, km Macromolecule-nm Organ system-cm, m Community- m, km Organelle-um Organism-cm, m Ecosystem- km Cell-um Scientific Process-process of elimination; how, not why 1. Observation 2. Question 3. Hypothesis- suggested explanations that accounts for observations 4. Prediction 5. Experiment- test hypothesis; either supports or disproves hypothesis 6. Theory- hypothesis that stands the test of time Science is an iterative process-multiple cycles Microevolution- genetic change in a population of organisms over time Macroevolution- all existing species developed from earlier species by natural selection Theorized by Darwin Shown through fossil comparisons Darwin believed only inherited traits can be passed on/ accepted Lemarke believed that acquired traits (giraffe neck) were passed on/ rejected Natural selection-Differential reproduction of genotypes; factors in the environment lead to evolutionary changes Survival of the fittest Study Objectives #2 The Six Kingdoms Arcaebacteria- prokaryotic (no nucleus), no peptidoglycan cell wall. Ex. Methanogens (produce methane), halophiles (salt lovers), and thermophiles (heat lovers) Eubacteria- Prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell (protects against extreme conditions) wall; Ex. Cyanobacteria, soil bacteria, Nitrogen fixing bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria Protista- Eukaryotic, unicellular (except algae), photosynthetic or heterotrophic; Ex. Amoebas and paramecium Fungi- Eukaryotic, multicellular (except yeast), heterotrophic, usually nonmotile, chitin cell wall Plantae- Eukaryotic, multicellular, nonmotile, usually terrestrial, photosynthetic Animalia- Eukaryotic, multicellular, motile, heterotrophic The earth is about 4.8 billion years old. Life originated between 3.8 billion and 3.5 billion years ago. Early Earth Reducing Atmosphere- lots of H, CO 2 , and CH 4 (methane), N 2 , H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), and NH 3 (ammonia) Little O 2 High temperature (oceans were 49-88degrees Celcius) High UV radiation (absorbed by ozone) Theories of Life Special Creation- God created life; scientific creationism Extraterrestrial origin- panspermia; meteors carried life to earth Spontaneous origin- life evolved from inanimate matter o Only testable hypothesis- Miller- Urey test supports this 1. Miller- Urey recreated early earth...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HUMANITIES 111 taught by Professor Blume during the Winter '08 term at Union.

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SOQs - Biology Notes Study Objectives #1 Biology- Study of...

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