08-knn - 1 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Instance-Based Learning CS472 Fall 2007 Thorsten Joachims What is Learning? Examples Riding a bike (motor skills) Telephone number (memorizing) Read textbook (memorizing and operationalizing rules) Playing backgammon (strategy) Develop scientific theory (abstraction) Language Recognize fraudulent credit card transactions Etc. (One) Definition of Learning Definition [Mitchell]: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E. Examples Spam Filtering T: Classify emails HAM / SPAM E: Examples (e 1 ,HAM),(e 2 ,SPAM),(e 3 ,HAM),(e 4 ,SPAM), ... P: Prob. of error on new emails Personalized Retrieval T: find documents the user wants for query E: watch person use Google (queries / clicks) P: # relevant docs in top 10 Play Checkers T: Play checkers E: games against self P: percentage wins How can an Agent Learn? Learning strategies and settings rote learning learning from instruction learning by analogy learning from observation and discovery learning from examples Carbonell, Michalski & Mitchell. Inductive Learning / Concept Learning Task: Learn (to imitate) a function f: X Y Training Examples: Learning algorithm is given the correct value of the function for particular inputs...
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08-knn - 1 Foundations of Artificial Intelligence...

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