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exam 2 - Four principles involved in the study of politics...

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-1 Four principles involved in the study of politics include sociality, cooperation, conflict, and stability. Sociality asks the question of what we as humans are like by nature. Cooperation determines the manner in which we will work with others. Conflict shows why cooperation does not always occur, and stability demonstrates what factors can sustain a society. These principles are abstract yet can be applied to the practical study of politics. The problem of sociality asks the question of what human nature is. Two conflicting views on this are provided by Aristotle and Hobbes. While Aristotle suggests that humans are cooperative by nature and that a polis will evolve naturally, Hobbes has a much grimmer view of nature. He believes that a social contract, in which we submit our rights to a strong governing authority, or Leviathan, in order to gain protection from the chaotic world, is necessary. These two theories provide very conflicting views on sociality. An alternate way to look at sociality is to look at the ways in which humans relate to one another. Fisk provides this with his four elementary forms of sociality: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing. Communal sharing seems to be the model most consistent with Aristotle’s; it describes a community with a common bond where everyone takes what they need and gives what they can. Authority ranking is a more Hobbesian concept, where there is a definite authority who recieves more than others but is also required to contribute more to the relationship than the other members. Equality matching describes a relationship where you repay the other person what they give to you, in either a positive or a negative sense, a tit for tat concept.
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