test two study guide - The direct effects model of...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

The direct effects model of immediacy(Nonverbal has a direct effect)oWarm, involving, immediate behaviors lead to increased persuasionoIt is easier to comply with people we likeoWe tend to trust warm, friendly peopleKinesicsoStudy of body movements oEye contactConveys interest, attention, attraction, liking, warmth and immediacy Eye contact usually enhances persuasionException to the general ruleKleinke (1980) found that an illegitimate request was more effective without eye contactoFacial expressionsSmiling is an immediacy behaviorSmiling conveys warmth, attraction, liking and sincerityExcessive smiling may backfireMay be perceived as phonyMay be perceived as shallowoMirroringMirroring involved matching or mimicking another’s behaviorEye contact, posture, gestures, stanceMirroring conveys similarity and empathyMirroring facilities persuasionNegotiators who used mirroring were more likely to reach a dealSpeed daters who use mirroring were ranked more highlyoGesturesEmblemsGestures that have a precise verbal meaning and can substitute for wordsHelps foster attention and retention on persuadesExample: thumbs up (nationally and universally known)PersuasiveIllustrators (cannot stand alone. Cannot be substituted, increases comprehension)Gestures that accompany speechIllustrate, emphasize or repeat what is being saidResearch indicates the use of illustrators is persuasiveShows confidences and adds clarityPersuasiveAdaptors( ex If you’re cold and you rub your arm)Fidgeting Self-touching behaviorsNot persuasiveOften seen as a sign of anxietyIs not PersuasiveoHaptics/Touch
If done appropriately, research indicates that it seems to be persuasiveWhy it is persuasiveTouch may put people in a good mood, more likely to complyPeople who touch create more favorable impression of themselvesThrough touch, people argument their image of powerProxemicsoStudy of spaceoExpectancy violations theoryPeople have expectations about how close other people should stand to usIf people violate expectationsToo closeToo farWe experience arousal and/or may become distractedViolations are perceived positively or negatively depending upon the status, reward power of the communicatorChromatics/TimeoTime spend waiting confers power or statusoTardiness can negatively impact credibilityLate arrivers were considered more dynamic, but less competent and less sociable than those who were punctualoPersuaders can try to persuade us by making time scarce (Scarcity) Example: limited time offero“non-urgency” tactics also usedParalinguisticoCan be very persuasiveoThe study of vocal stimuliRatePitchToneVolumeInflectionSilenceSighsCommunicator Characteristics and PersuadabilityoAge

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture