History 102 Notes

History 102 Notes - Western Civilization Chapter 17 The Age...

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Unformatted text preview: Western Civilization Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment (1715-1789): intellectual movement Enlightenment thinkers believed: human beings can comprehend the operation of physical nature and mold it to achieve moral improvement, economic growth and administrative reform Advocated: agricultural improvement, commercial society, expanding consumption and innovative rational methods **innovation & improvement I nfluences on the Enlightenment: came right before NEWTON : formed the law of universal gravity--- newly perceived power of the human mind Emphasis on concrete experience rather than metaphysics or supernaturalism – universe seemed to function like a machine- mathematically- using reason & experiences LOCKE : tabula rasa: humans enter the world with a blank slate- experience and only experience shape human character – NO original sin- humans are neutral as they come in An essay concerning human understanding 1690- psychology of sensation Government- liberty! Justified the power of parliament Why do we give up some liberties for the government-we are living in a state of nature- we need governments to protect us- law&order- government was an impartial arbitrator to oversee disputes between people RIGHTS: life, liberty, property If they don’t protect those rights you have the right to rebel and put in place a better government England: after revolution of 1688 there was: religious toleration, relative freedom of speech&press, government resided in parliament *more and more books with secular themes emerged- more concerned with day to day life- government sensed political influence the book culture would produce so they tried to censor books etc. -middle class was reading as well-pamphlets etc. Philosophes : writers & critics who flourished in expanding the print culture, forged new attitudes that advocated change, reform and toleration. Applied the rules of reason, criticism and common sense to all the major institutions VOLTAIRE : plays & poetry- brings ideas of Locke and Newton back to France Praised the English for their religious liberty-seemed more tolerant, also liked England’s constitutional monarchy—criticized abuses of French society—wrote letters on the English 1733 Candide: satire- the best of all possible worlds- using it to attack bigotry, superstition, religious intolerance, humans willingness to go to war with each other etc. Believed human society could be improved but was unsure of its permanence Didn’t question rule of monarchy Crush the infamous thing- the Catholic Church Religion : philosophes attacked old regime Christianity- such a big institution- controlled land and taxes etc. went against the idea of original sin Barach Spinoza: Jewish- local synagogue excommunicated him for his ideas- began to challenge the way we saw god- pantheism- god is everywhere (people, nature etc.) wanted to read the bible like any other book Deism: god who created nature must be rational since nature is rational Life of religion and reason could be combined...
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History 102 Notes - Western Civilization Chapter 17 The Age...

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