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4.9.07 - Learning and Motivation Negative Reinforcement...

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Learning and Motivation (4/9/07) Negative Reinforcement Negative contingency When the behavior occurs there is an absence of consequence Absence of behavior and stimulus consequence Aversive If you don’t like it then you will do what you need to in order to make sure the stimulus consequence isn’t presented Escape Consequence begins, response ends it Avoidance Behavior prevents it from occuring ESCAPE LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR Motivated by adversity and reward is the termination Have to encounter the aversive stimulus in order to be motivated to stop it 3 Factors that affect escape learning Intensity of adversity More aversive, more determined to stop Faster learning, higher level (stronger) Trapold and Fouler (1960) Ally mazes. measured running to goal Rats ran to escape shock Volts of 120, 160, 240, 300, and 400 Biggest shock ran fastest Yerkes-Dodson Delicate balance between high intensity and too freaking high For every behavior change there is an optimal stimulus intensity Too low, not enough behavior/learning Too high, becomes “paralyzed” Cost analysis of helping study Focused on hey elements of what will make people help and what prevents them from helping?
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