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Unformatted text preview: Global Climate Change Policy Betsill (Axelrod, Ch. 6) Annex 1/non-Annex 1 o Annex 1 Industrialized countries reduce their aggregate GHG emissions 5.2% below 1990 levels over the period 2008-2012 o non-Annex 1 developing countries not held to the same emissions reduction standards as Annex 1 Principles that founded international agreement o UNFCCC and KP form the core of the global climate change regime o UNFCCC and KP set forth the principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures that govern interactions between members of the international community on climate change UNFCCC Establishes the basic architecture within which international efforts to address global climate change take place Conference of the Parties o Supreme body of the UNFCCC o Meets annually Common but differentiated responsibilities o Even though all members of the international community have an obligation to protect the environment, all Annex 1 countries are responsible to take the lead in addressing climate change Equity Precautionary principle o Absence of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to avoid taking action to mitigate the threat and/or impact of climate change Kyoto Protocol Outlines specific obligations consistent with the guiding principles set forth in the UNFCCC Adopted at COP-3 in December, 1997 Requires industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition to reduce their aggregate GHG emissions 5.2% below 1990 levels over the period 2008-2012 Allows countries to receive credit for emissions absorbed by sinks (biotic masses, such as forests, that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere) Flexible mechanisms KP allows countries flexibility in choosing how to achieve their emissions reduction commitments 1 o Emissions trading Permits countries that exceed their allowed emissions to purchase emissions credits from countries whose emissions are below their allotted amount o Joint implementation Industrialized countries may also invest in emissions reduction activities in other industrialized countries The investing country receives emissions reductions units (ERUs) that can be applied toward its target o Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Allows industrialized countries to invest in emissions-reducing activities in developing countries in return for certified emissions reductions (CERs) that may then be used toward meeting its target Compliance o Largely ignored in KP o Marrakesh Accords set forth a compliance system Consists of a Compliance Committee with 2 branches with 10 members Facilitative o Helps countries fulfill commitments under KP Enforcement o Determines whether countries are in compliance with their commitments Parties found to be in noncompliance cannot utilize flexible mechanisms Countries that fail to meet their emissions reduction goals in the first commitment period are required to make up the difference during the...
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- Winter '08