Exam #1 Notes

Exam #1 Notes - Axelrod Ch 2 Background o Env pollution is...

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Axelrod Ch. 2 Background o Env pollution is now on transnational, regional, global proportions o Env pollution was once localized o “Human beings have become the agents of fundamental alterations of the earth” (21). o Global political system is fragmented o Intl. regimes combine intl. institutions, dedicated to various env causes o IGOs (ex. UNEP – UN Environmental Programme) o NGOs (ex. Green Peace – env advocacy orgs, scientific associations) Stockholm Conference 1972 o Began the era of the wave of public concern about the environment (DDT & other toxic substances through ecosystems, radioactive contamination, acid deposition, oil spills) o UN GA est. UNEP to be a focal point for UN programs on environment o Became prototype for following major world conferences which focused worldwide attn. on major intl. issues o “Need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment,” UNEP site Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 o Second major wave of intl. env concern o Focused on ozone depletion, climate change, rapid shrinkage of tropical rain forests, loss of biological diversity, spread of deserts, decline of major fisheries o Significant shifts in the responses by intl. institutions to env problems o Brundtland Commission, “Our Common Future” report Recognized that poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries were impt causes of env degredation o RDJ conf drew 116 heads of state Adopted p.o.a Agenda 21 Major intl treaties on climate change and biological diversity and a statement of forest principles UN General Assembly o Sponsors negotiations in intl treaty law for env issues o Adopts numerous resolutions setting forth non-binding regulations and standards – soft law o Uses experts and prominent political figures to tackle major env intl issues o Arena of choice for developing countries UNEP o Institutional focus for env activities within the UN system o Role is for catalyzing, facilitating, and coordinating env programs both by countries and other intl orgs 1
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o Gathers info on env relevant issues o Only UN agency with HQ in developing country Agenda 21 o Elaborate plan of action for achieving SD implemented originally by CSD Commission on Sustainable Development o Est by UN GA to monitor and facilitate efforts to implement the diverse goals and recommendations of the Earth Summit o Promotes dialogue and encourages partnerships among govts, UN agencies, NGOs, and numerous groups outlined in Agenda 21 o Provides a forum for discussion on issues related to SD o Lacks power and resources to affect changes on its own (supported by UNEP) The World Bank o Provides loans to countries, mostly developing countries o Has been criticized for funding ill-conceived projects o Has been criticized for its failure to anticipate the ecological impacts of products and some projects added greenhouse emissions
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course CORE 2468 taught by Professor Dale during the Winter '08 term at Denver.

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Exam #1 Notes - Axelrod Ch 2 Background o Env pollution is...

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