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March 14, 2008 - if the independent variable has a real...

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March 14 Outline I. Directional hypotheses (continued) A. When to use B. Illustration C. “One tail” vs. “Two tail” II. Statistical “ significance III. Chapter 11: Statistical power A. Real effect B. Use of power IV. Calculating power with the sign test A. P null B. P real C. Steps 1. Assume H 0 is true. Determine outcomes that allow H 0 to be rejected 2. For assumed P real value, determine probability of these outcomes (from Step 1)
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Significant: H 0 has been rejected (a conclusion that the results are due to the independent variable) Power: the probability that the results of an experiment will allow the rejection of H
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Unformatted text preview: if the independent variable has a real effect Real effect: an effect that produces a change in the dependent variable P null : the probability of getting a plus with any participant in the sample of an experiment when the independent variable has no effect (P null = .50) P real : the probability of getting a plus with any participant in the sample of an experiment when the independent variable has a real effect; also, the proportion of pluses in the population if the experiment were done on the entire population and the independent variable has a real effect...
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