Anatomy exam 3 - Fundamentals of the Nervous System(Part 1...

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Fundamentals of the Nervous System (Part 1) Introduction 1) Sensory input ~ senses stimulations (sensors in skin/muscles throughout body) 2) Integration ~ (part of the CNS); relayed messages come from sensory input -Brain, tells us what to do 3) Motor output ~ responses (from the CNS) that travel to the effector organ (muscles or glands) -Taking your hand off a stove would be the motor output Divisions in the NS 1) CNS (Central Nervous system)—brain and spinal cord -Integration ~ interprets sensory information -Control Center ~ dictates motor output (decides what to do) -Established what kind of sensory input (pain, crushing pain, burn, pressure) and if it needs to be changed/fixed 2) PNS (Peripheral Nervous system)—everything else -Communication of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerves (all around your body) a. Sensory ~ afferent division--stimuli b. Motor ~ efferent division—response I. Somatic NS~ voluntary II. Autonomic NS ~ involuntary (two parts) A. Sympathetic NS ~ “Fight or flight”; if you’re scared/stressed sweating and increased heart rate B. Parasympathetic NS ~ rest and digest; not nervous but calmer states, heart rate down *Sympathetic and Parasympathetic are opposite of each other—when ones stimulating, the others inhibiting Embryonic Origins of NS 1) Ectoderm ~ Hair, skin, nails, NS (outer layer) -CNS and PNS 2) Mesoderm ~ Blood, vessels, muscular tissue, connective tissue (dermis of skin) -Cardiovascular system, reproductive system (respiratory and digestive systems) 3) Endoderm ~ epithelial lining digestive tract, urinary tract and respiratory tract (glands) *Just need to know that the “ectoderm” is part of the CNS + PNS Neuron Anatomy -Cell body ~ production of proteins, chemical, and enzymes (help build NTs) -Well developed “Nissl Bodies” (super specialized rough ER) and Golgi apparatus -Biosynthetic center of neuron because it has very specialized organelles *Biosynthesis ~ production of complex molecules within living organisms or cells -Microtubules, neurofibrils, neurofilaments ~ important for moving substances in the neuron (throughout) -Material needs to be transported to long distances
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-Processes ~ arm-like projections from the cell body of all neurons (2 types) *CNS consists of cell bodies and processes—PNS strictly of processes *Bundles of processes called “tracts” in CNS and “nerves” in PNS 1) Dendrites ~ receives input from another neuron (receptive regions) -Conducts a graded potential toward soma and hopefully reaches axon hillock 2) Axon ~ (of another neuron) transmits to the dendrite of the other -Each neuron has one axon which conducts the output -This is the AP, only happens if the graded potential from dendrites hit the axon AP all the way down the hillock -Axonal Terminal ~ end of axon (secretory portion—material/neurotransmitters being secreted) -Axon helix ~ graded potential must reach this for AP to generate -At the end of the cell body, right before the axon Transport along Axon -Anterograde ~ motor protein involved is “kinesin” -Movement away from the cell body
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