Notes on Gudino (2013) - J Abnorm Child Psychol(2013 41:983992 DOI 10.1007\/s10802-013-9731-2 Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Posttraumatic Stress

Notes on Gudino (2013) - J Abnorm Child Psychol(2013...

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Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Latino Children Exposed to Violence Omar G. Gudiño Published online: 14 March 2013 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Latino children in urban contexts marked by pov- erty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and devel- oping posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re- experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students ( M age =11.43 years, SD =0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children com- pleted self-report measures of exposure to community vio- lence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavior- al inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after control- ling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhi- bition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associ- ated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individ- ual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis-stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness. Keywords Behavioral inhibition . Violence exposure . Latino . Posttraumatic stress . Avoidance Exposure to community violence among children and ado- lescents is a major public health problem in the United States (Cooley-Strickland et al. 2009 ; Koop and Lundberg 1992 ). Community violence is defined as deliberate acts occurring in the community that are intended to cause harm to a person or group (Cooley-Quille et al. 1995 ). Examples of community violence include being physically assaulted, robbed, threatened, shot or stabbed. Furthermore, exposure to community violence is typically categorized as involving personal victimization, witnessing of such violence perpe- trated on others, and hearing about such violence occurring in the community (Fowler et al. 2009 ). While community violence can impact youths regardless of race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status, it disproportion- ately impacts racial/ethnic minority youths, those living in poverty, and those living in urban settings (Bureau of Justice Statistics 1997 ; Stein et al. 2003 ). An estimated 50 96 % of urban children and adolescents are exposed to community violence (Stein et al. 2003 ). Exposure to one form of vio-
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