Developmental Psychology1996,Vol. 32, No. 4, 574-589Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association, Inc.00I2-1M9/96/S3.00The Developmental Interface Between Nature and Nurture: A MutualInfluence Model of Child Antisocial Behavior and Parent BehaviorsXiaojia GeUniversity of California at DavisRandD.CongerIowa State UniversityRemi J. CadoretUniversity of IowaJenae M. NeiderhiserGeorge Washington UniversityWilliam Yates, Edward Troughton, and MarkA.StewartUniversity of IowaUsing an adoption design to collect data on biological and adoptive parents of children adopted atbirth, this study explored a possible mechanism through which heritable characteristics of adoptedchildren evoke adoptive parent responses and lead to reciprocal influences between adoptive parentand adopted child behavior. Participants were 25 male and 20 female adoptees, 12-18 years ofage,having either a biological parent with substance abuse /dependency or antisocial personality or abiological parent with no such history. The study found that psychiatric disorders of biological par-ents were significantly related to children's antisocial/hostile behaviors and that biological parents'psychiatric disorders were associated with adoptive parents' behaviors. This genotype-environmentassociation was largely mediated by adoptees' antisocial /hostilebehaviors.Results also suggest thatthe adoptee's antisocial/hostile behavior and adoptive mother's parenting practices affect each other.Genetic factors are frequently hypothesized to be involved inthe way children select, modify, and create the environmentsthat they experience (Scarr & McCartney, 1983). Althoughemerging evidence from a behavioral genetic perspective duringthe past decade suggests that heritable characteristics of chil-dren influence measures of family environment (e.g., Hur &Bouchard, 1995;O'Connor,Hetherington, Reiss, & Plomin,1995;Plomin, Reiss, Hetherington, & Howe, 1994), more re-search is needed to explain the details oftherole of genetics inenvironmental measures. For example, although results fromquantitative genetic analyses treating environmental measuresas phenotypes have indicated that genetic factors may contrib-ute to differences in children's environmental experiences (Hur&Bouchard, 1995;0'Connoretal.,1995;Plomin etal., 1994),questions remain as to exactly what heritable characteristics ofthe children and through exactly what processes genetic factorsXiaojia Ge, Department of Human and Community Development,University of California, Davis; Rand D. Conger, Department of Soci-ology, Iowa State University; Rcmi J. Cadoret, William Yates, EdwardTroughton, and MarkA.Stewart, Department of Psychiatry, UniversityofIowa;Jenae M. Neiderhiser, Department of Psychiatry and Behav-ioral Sciences, George Washington University.