Notes on Ge (1996) - Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association Inc 00I2-1M9\/96\/S3.00 Developmental Psychology 1996 Vol 32 No 4 574-589

Notes on Ge (1996) - Copyright 1996 by the American...

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Developmental Psychology 1996, Vol. 32, No. 4, 574-589 Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 00I2-1M9/96/S3.00 The Developmental Interface Between Nature and Nurture: A Mutual Influence Model of Child Antisocial Behavior and Parent Behaviors Xiaojia Ge University of California at Davis Rand D. Conger Iowa State University Remi J. Cadoret University of Iowa Jenae M. Neiderhiser George Washington University William Yates, Edward Troughton, and Mark A. Stewart University of Iowa Using an adoption design to collect data on biological and adoptive parents of children adopted at birth, this study explored a possible mechanism through which heritable characteristics of adopted children evoke adoptive parent responses and lead to reciprocal influences between adoptive parent and adopted child behavior. Participants were 25 male and 20 female adoptees, 12-18 years of age, having either a biological parent with substance abuse /dependency or antisocial personality or a biological parent with no such history. The study found that psychiatric disorders of biological par- ents were significantly related to children's antisocial/hostile behaviors and that biological parents' psychiatric disorders were associated with adoptive parents' behaviors. This genotype-environment association was largely mediated by adoptees' antisocial / hostile behaviors. Results also suggest that the adoptee's antisocial/hostile behavior and adoptive mother's parenting practices affect each other. Genetic factors are frequently hypothesized to be involved in the way children select, modify, and create the environments that they experience (Scarr & McCartney, 1983). Although emerging evidence from a behavioral genetic perspective during the past decade suggests that heritable characteristics of chil- dren influence measures of family environment (e.g., Hur & Bouchard, 1995; O'Connor, Hetherington, Reiss, & Plomin, 1995; Plomin, Reiss, Hetherington, & Howe, 1994), more re- search is needed to explain the details of the role of genetics in environmental measures. For example, although results from quantitative genetic analyses treating environmental measures as phenotypes have indicated that genetic factors may contrib- ute to differences in children's environmental experiences (Hur &Bouchard, 1995;0'Connoretal., 1995; Plomin etal., 1994), questions remain as to exactly what heritable characteristics of the children and through exactly what processes genetic factors Xiaojia Ge, Department of Human and Community Development, University of California, Davis; Rand D. Conger, Department of Soci- ology, Iowa State University; Rcmi J. Cadoret, William Yates, Edward Troughton, and Mark A. Stewart, Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa; Jenae M. Neiderhiser, Department of Psychiatry and Behav- ioral Sciences, George Washington University.

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