food micro exam 2 notes

food micro exam 2 notes - Staphylococcus aureus-Gram...

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Staphylococcus aureus -Gram + cocci -produces enterotoxins that are heat stable -10^ 5 – 10^6 CFU/g to produce entertoxin -types of enterotoxin: A, B, C, D, E, F, G Most often found in foods: A, B Toxic shock syndrome: F -can survive in low water activity so it likes high salt, high sugar, high protein -found on skin, nose -gets in food by handler -2 bucket disease -Control: sanitation, washing hands (heating won’t work b/c it is heat stable!) Clostridium botulinum -Gram +, neurotoxin, anaerobic -spores are heat resistant and found in dirt, soil, water sediment -below pH 4.6, it cannot grow -boiling for 10 destroys neurotoxin; double vision, blurry vision, paralysis -treatment is anti serum -types: A, B, C, D, E, F, G foods – A B E F soil – G animals – C D -Group I A B F proteolytic – can break down proteins (produces sulfur compounds) more tolerant to salt -Group II B E F nonproteolytic less tolerant to salt problem in fish -Types of botulism 1. Foodborne botulism foodborne intoxication where one ingests the organism 2. Infant botulism infants under 12 months old infant ingest spores (adults consume neurotoxin) honey 3. Wound botulism infects wound and produces toxins which reaches parts of body (no food involved) 4. Infectious botulism Adults ingest spores
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Botox : dilute neurotoxin injected Control: get pH < 4.6 keep product aerobic, refrigerate product, thermal process: low acid pH > 4.6 12D process (heat treatment) done to low acid canned products high acid pH < 4.6 Clostridium perfringens -Gram + anaerobic, spore forming rod -“the food service bug” -can cause infection and intoxication -gassy, explosive diarrhea -associated with meat products – cooling regulations -Control: keep product out of temp. danger zone (keep it really cold or hot) Bacillus cereus -Gram + rods aerobic, spore forming that are heat resistant -can grow at 4 degree C even though mesophilic (usually dairy products) -2 types: 1. Diarrheal – similar to C. perfringes ; 10^8 ingested 2. Emetic – vomiting and similar to S. aureus
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