Biology Study Guide

Biology Study Guide - Biology Study Guide [CELLULAR...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biology Study Guide [CELLULAR RESPIRATION] Metabolism = chemical reactions occurring continuously in all living organisms Anabolism: synthesis, requires energy to from chemical bonds (endergonic) Catabolism: breakdown, releases energy stored in chemical bonds (exergonic) Glucose combusted for free energy (ΔG = -2870 kJ/mol or -686 kcal/mol) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + free energy Glycolysis: glucose pyruvate, anaerobic, cytosol, makes 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH Cellular respiration: 1 pyruvate 3CO 2 , aerobic, mitochondria Pyruvate oxidation: 2 NADH, 2CO 2 , mitochondrial matrix TCA cycle: 6 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 FADH 2 , mitochondrial matrix Electron transport: 28 ATP, inner membrane Fermentation: pyruvate lactic acid or ethyl alcohol, anaerobic, cytoplasm Prokaryotes: glycolysis, fermentation, and TCA cycle occur in cytoplasm, pyruvate oxidation and ETC on membrane NAD Coenzyme, electron carrier in redox reactions Reduction: NAD + + 2H NADH + H + Oxidation: NADH + H + + ½O 2 NAD + + H 2 O ATP Energy stored in P-O bond Releases relatively large amount of energy when hydrolyzed: ~31 kJ/mol 2 ATP from glycolysis + 2 ATP from TCA cycle (succinyl coA) + 26 ATP from ETC = 30 ATP per glucose ATP from glycolysis, TCA are from substrate level phosphorylation Regulation Allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase (activated by ADP/AMP, inhibited by ATP/citrate) Allosteric regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (activated by ADP/NAD + , inhibited by ATP/NADH) [GLYCOLYSIS] 10 steps: first 5 are energy-investing (endergonic), last 5 are energy-harvesting (exergonic) Glucose 1. 1 ATP INVESTED : hexokinase, G6P ( glucose-6-phosphate ) 2. Phospherase isomerase, fructose-6-phosphate 3. 1 ATP INVESTED : phosphofructokinase, FBP ( fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ) 4. Aldolase, 1 DAP (dihydroxyacetone phosphate) and 1 G3P (glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate) 5. DAP converted to G3P 2 G3P The following steps occur 2x (1 for each G3P) 6. 2 (1 EACH) NAD + REDUCED TO NADH : Triose phosphate dehydrogenase, BPG (1,3-bisphosphoglycerate) 7. 2 (1 EACH) ATP HARVESTED : phosphoglycerate kinase, 3PG (3- phosphoglycerate) 8. Phosphoglyceromutase, 2PG (2-phosphoglycerate) 9. Enolase makes PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate), 2 H 2 O produced 10. 2 (1 EACH) ATP HARVESTED : pyruvate kinase makes pyruvate 2 pyruvate Net products: 2 pyruvate, 2 H 2 O, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
1,3-BPG and PEP undergo substrate-level phosphorylation to make ATP for steps 7, 10 [FERMENTATION] Alcoholic fermentation (yeast) Pyruvate pyruvate decarboxylase, CO 2 released acetaldehyde alcohol dehydrogenase, NADH oxidized to NAD + ethanol Lactic acid fermentation (vigorously contracting muscle, erythrocytes, others) Pyruvate lactase dehydrogenase, NADH oxidized to NAD + L-Lactate So, 2 Pyruvate 2 ethanol + 2 CO 2 (ana) OR 2 Acetyl-CoA 4 CO 2 + 4H 2 O (aerobic) OR 2 Lactate (ana) [CELLULAR RESPIRATION: TCA CYCLE] Pyruvate oxidation: convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, CO 2 and NADH also released
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO 121 taught by Professor Lampson,rea during the Fall '07 term at UPenn.

Page1 / 8

Biology Study Guide - Biology Study Guide [CELLULAR...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online