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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 JOINTS Joints and Their...

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Chapter 9 JOINTS Joints and Their Classification Arthrology is the science concerning joints. Joints are classified according to their relative freedom of movement 1. A diarthrosis is freely movable. 2. An amphiarthrosis is slightly movable 3. A synarthrosis is immovable. Joints are also classified according to how the adjacent bones are joined: Fibrous, cartilaginous, bony or synovial Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Bony joints Fibrous joints , fibers of collagen join two bones. Sutures are immovable fibrous joints limited to the skull. a. Serrate sutures form wavy lines. b. Lap (squamous) sutures occur where two bones have overlapping beveled edges. c. Plane (butt) sutures occur where two bones have straight, non overlapping edges. Gomphoses occur at the point where a tooth attaches into its bony socket and is held in place by a fibrous periodontal membrane. Syndesmoses are the most movable of the fibrous joints and are joined by an interosseous ligament. Example: Tibia and fibula connection at the ankle. Cartilaginous Joints. 1. Cartilaginous joints, two bones are joined by cartilage. 2. In a synchondrosis, the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. Example: the attachment of a rib to the sternum. 3. In a symphysis, two bones are joined by a fibrocartilage pad. Example: An intervertebral disc.
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Bony Joints 1. Some fibrous and cartilaginous joints ossify with age, and the gap between adjacent bones fills with osseous tissue until the bones become one. SYNOVIAL JOINTS General Anatomy 1. The bones of a synovial joint are separated by a joint cavity containing lubricating synovial fluid. The adjoining surfaces of bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, further reducing friction within the joint. 2. A joint capsule encloses the cavity and is made up of an outer fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane. 3. Certain joints contain a pad of fibrocartilage called a meniscus that absorbs shock and pressure.
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