Week 5 Notes 2

Week 5 Notes 2 - Week 5 Notes 2 The Disastrous 14th Century...

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Week 5 Notes 2 The Disastrous 14 th Century - Religious and Political Fragmentation o Avignon Papacy (1309-1377) “Babylonia Captivity” 72 years The Great Schism Conciliar movement Philip IV (ruled 1285-1314) St. Catharine of Siena (1347-1380) Palace of the Popes, Avignon o Renewed criticism Lollards Jan Hus (1373-1415) John Wycliffe (1320-1384) o 100 Years War (1337-1453) King Edward III of England (1312-1377) Military innovation: Crecy and Agincourt Pikes Longbows Gunpowder Infantry vs. cavalry Joan of Arc (1412-1431) Reluctant Dauphin Lifted siege of Orleans Coronation at Reims 1431 o Tried, heresy, witchcraft - Demographic Catastrophe o Famine 1300: strained resources Raiding common lands Weather turned in 1310 Famine 1315-1322 o The Black Death: Bubonic Plague Yersinia pestis 1348
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1/3 to ½ Europe Social breakdown Spiritual questioning o Religious explanations o Treatments: material and spiritual “Bad air” Leeches Flagellants Pogroms o Social unrest Peasants revolt Labor shortages Wage caps Social reform and religious fervor Eroded manorial system o Long term results Population decline Feudal structure undermined Spur to technology Religious revival Food cheap and plentiful - Disasters of the Late Middle Ages o Stable, ordered society challenged in 13 th and 14 th centuries by a series of disasters both natural and man-made o All affected: those who pray, those who work, those who fight saw their status and institutions challenged and undermined by these events The Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism The 100 Years War (England vs. France) Famine and the Black Death - Famine o Population growth was beginning to strain capability of the lands by 1300 Peasants began eating seed grains, planting common lands used for grazing and slaughtering livestock Overuse of the land led to its depletion When the weather turned in 1310 it was bad news There was too much rain and crop failure o Famine ensued between 1315 and 1322 This drove many off the land to cities in search of work/food
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There was a weak population, crowded, substandard housing o This was a great breeding ground for disease - Black Death o Yersinia petis Also called the Bubonic Plague Virulent bacillus from Manchuria o Spread to black rats and brought to Europe on Genoese ships through Sicily in 1348 Fast moving disease spread in the next several years (1348-1350)
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course HIST 12 taught by Professor Andrews during the Winter '08 term at Santa Clara.

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Week 5 Notes 2 - Week 5 Notes 2 The Disastrous 14th Century...

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