Week 7 Notes - Week 7 Notes The Reformation Reform...

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Week 7 Notes The Reformation - Reform Movements (Part 1) o Late Medieval Religiosity Medieval Christianity flourishing Partners in our own salvation Penitential acts Sacraments o Baptism o Conformation o Eucharist o Holy Orders Luther really dislike this o Reconciliation of a Penitent o Anointing of the Sick o Matrimony Ennobling work o Martin Luther (1483-1546) Challenged theological bedrock Papal indulgences Cycle of sin through penance “Justification” Sinner and saved “Priesthood of all believers” Luther goes public 1517: 95 Theses o Wittenberg door 1519: debate in Leipzig 1520: condemned by Pope Leo X 1521: Diet at Worms o Luther excommunicated o Unified Spain 1469 Dynastic union Ferdinand o Aragon and Catalonia Isabella o Castile
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Integration long process o Social Consequences Clerical and monastic changes “People’s priests” Zwingli Calvin Anabaptists City council = council of elders o Confessionalization The split in Europe between the Protestants and Catholics o Rural Responses Materialist readings of reform Economic stress 1524/25 peasant rising Luther o “Mad dogs” Defeated April 1525 o Printing Press Revolution Wood block printing from China 1440 moveable o Religious Settlement 1530 Augsburg confession League of Schmaldkalden Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555 1556: Charles abdicates o Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) People’s priest of Zurich Reform a communal effort Restructured Church service Rejected Transubstantiation o Revolutionary Anabaptists “Rebaptizers” No infant baptism Munster “Kingdom of Righteousness” o Jan of Leiden (died 1535) o John Calvin (1509-1564) Geneva in 1536
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Magnet for reformers Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) Christian Commonwealth Protestant work ethic? o Separatist Anabaptists Menno Simons (1495-1561) Founded Mennonites Jakob Hutter (died 1536) Hutterian Brethren Rejected violence Communities of the elect “Shunning” o El Greco “The Burial of the Count of Orgaz” - Spanish Defenders of the Faith and Taking Up Luther’s Challenge o 1492 Granada conquest Jews Convert or leave Columbus departs o Convivencia no more 2% Jewish 50% Muslim Social integration 1391 was a turning point Conversos Marranos o Jewish converts Moriscos o Muslim converts o Purifying the State 1492 Jews expelled 1504 Muslims expelled Brain drain “Limpieza de sangre” It means basically a pure blood line o Becomes a marker for inclusion and appointment for jobs (have to prove that there are no conversos in your family)
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Fear of “judaizing” Forced baptism of Moors Sanbenitos o Spanish Inquisition Myth vs. reality 1478 Torture “Relaxation to the secular arm” o
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