Week 8 Notes

Week 8 Notes - Week 8 Notes – Gold, God and Glory for the...

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Week 8 Notes Gold, God and Glory for the King The lure (and loot) of the East Precious spices Used for medicine, food preservation, taste and cloves were used for a local anesthetic Easily transported (great demand) Nutmeg and cloves were the most valuable Grew only in the Spice Islands Travel tales and imagined peoples Pliny the Elder Roman scholar (23-79) “Dog-headed humans” “Sciopods” In North Africa, it was believed that there was blemnye (headless humans) Marco Polo’s Travels Seeking Prester Jon Ptolemy’s Map (100? – 178?) Only 3 continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe) Only 2 oceans Indian Ocean Western Ocean (Atlantic) Lots of seas Land is ¾ of the Earth’s surface Miscalculated the actual size of the earth Thought it was about 1/6 th of the size that it actually is Catalan World Atlas (1375) New technologies Portolans Quadrant and Astrolabe Latitude not longitude Portages Caravel Lateen Portuguese Spice Trade Bartholomeu Dias (1488) Vasco da Gama (1498) Moluccas 1492 Granada conquest
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Jews: convert or leave Columbus departs Spain enters the fray Go west young man Columbus (1446-1506) 4 Voyages (1492-1502) “Indians” evermore Correcting the record Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512) Vasco Nuñez de Balboa (1475-1517) Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) Northwest Passage? John Cabot 1450-1499 for England Samuel de Champlain 1600 for France Dutch entry 1602: Dutch East India Company Different path Pangaea Bering Straits Late agricultural revolution Different complexity Llama largest animal No iron No wheel Late 1500’s: Imperial Americas “Azteca” or Mexica Incas at Cuzco Tenochtitlan Montezuma (1502-1521) Machiavellian Conquistador 1519: Vera Cruz Local allies Malintzin: Doña Marina (1501-1550) Hernán Cortes (1485-1546) Francisco Pizarro (1470-1541) Panama City Incan wealth Bacterial aid
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Silver not spices Wealth flows to Europe Silver mines Potosi (1545) Smallpox and other diseases Exacerbated labor shortage “Silent ally” in conquest The Colombian Exchange “Neo-Europes” Human Rights Bartolomé las Casas (1474-1566) African alternative Hierarchy of “humanness” Growing slave trade Sugar cane Labor intensive crop Portuguese slave trade In Cuba by 1518 By 1810: 10 million transported North America “Emptied land” Dyes, cotton, tobacco Slave labor needed European Expansion: Spice Trade Driven by the lure of the “east” Especially its riches (Persia, India, China, Japan) and also the Indonesian Spice Islands The crusades had given Europeans a taste for the silks, carpets, jewels, pottery and spices above all of the “orient”
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Week 8 Notes - Week 8 Notes – Gold, God and Glory for the...

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