short paper

short paper - Samantha Krakowski Ricardo Vazquez AANT110...

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Samantha Krakowski AANT110 Ricardo Vazquez Short paper Humans and apes differ in many ways. When looking, and comparing fossils from both species you may or may not notice these differences. Some can only be seen by a trained eye, but some are also very noticeable. While Donald Johanson and Tim White were analyzing the fossils they had found in Hadar and Laetoli they specifically focused on the skull and jaws. Seeing as they did not have complete skeletons this seemed like a good place to start. While doing their analysis they noticed something strange, their fossils did not fit into the standard bone structure of neither ape nor human. They had to think of a new way to describe these fossils. In order to prove that there was a need to name an entirely new species, they reviewed Le Gros Clark’s paper. In Le Gros Clark’s paper he set 11 distinct and reliable differences between the two species, in order to have a distinct definition of austrlopithecines. While examining the canines there was a major difference. The canines of the chimpanzee where much larger, sharp, and conical, they had a larger cingulum which led into a talonid. A human’s canines are more like all their other teeth, smaller, spatulate, and didn’t stick out as much. They had a small cingulum which leaves no room for a talonid. Also while looking at chimpanzee canines you will notice an obvious sexual dimorphism. This simply means that the male’s canines are much larger than the female’s even when you take into account the difference in size between the two sexes. In humans if males where scaled down to females size there would be no difference between the canines of the two sexes. In humans the canines are little and can meet on their occlusal
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surfaces. Chimpanzee canines are too large to do this. If their canines met the way humans do then the chimpanzee would never be able to close it jaw. In order for them to close their jaw the ape’s canines must meet on the sides of the teeth. Also in order to
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short paper - Samantha Krakowski Ricardo Vazquez AANT110...

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