Chapter 1 & 2 Notes

Chapter 1 & 2 Notes - Chapter 1& 2 Notes ERes...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 & 2 Notes- ERes Password—P31nji9- Physics o Fundamental Science Concerned with basic principles of the universe Foundation for other sciences o Five major areas Mechanics—motion Electromagnetism • Electricity, magnetism and their work done together Waves and optics Thermodynamics Modern physics • Quantum mechanics and relativity- Mechanics o Motion in 1 dimension o Vectors and motion in 2 & 3 dimensions o Law of Motion and application o Work and energy o Momentum and collisions o Rotational motion and torque o Static equilibrium and elasticity- Physics and Measurement o Physics attempts to find a small number of fundamental laws and theories, using mathematics, which governs natural phenomena o Physics is a science —not applied mathematics. Use experiments to validate/ modify physical laws Need consistent measurement quantities to compare theory and data, different experiments o The basic physical quantities of mechanics, the study of motion: Length Mass Time- Units of Measurement o Standardized units—SI—Systéme International Length—meter (m) • 1 meter = the distance traveled by light in vacuum in 1/299,792,458 second o Spend of light in a vacuum= 299,792,458 m/s Mass—kilogram (kg) • 1 kilogram = mass of a platinum-iridium alloy cylinder in 3.9 cm in. diameter and 3.9 cm in height o Reference mass in Paris, Maryland • Mass is not weight! Time—second (s) • 1 second = time of cesium-133 atom to undergo 9,192,631,770 vibrations- Powers of 10 o Prefixes indicate the power of 10 in measurements o Each prefixes has specific name, abbreviation o Prefixes can be used with any base unit Multiplies the base unit o Examples 1 mm = 10-3 m 1 mg = 10-3 g Power Prefix Abbreviation 10-24 Yocto y 10-21 Zepto Z 10-18 Atto A 10-15 Femto F 10-12 Pico P 10-9 Nano N 10-6 Micro μ 10-3 Milli M 10-2 Centi C 10-1 Deci D 10 3 Kilo K 10 6 Mega M 10 9 Giga G 10 12 Tera T 10 15 Peta P 10 18 Exa E 10 21 Zetta Z 10 24 Yotta Y- Dimensions & Derived Quantities o Dimension note the physical nature of quantity—length, mass, time, ect. o Denoted by brackets Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T] o Dimensional analysis—check correctness of answers, help derive equations Treat dimensions as algebraic quantities Both sides of an equation must have same dimensions • Area = [L 2 ] • Volume = [L 3 ] • Speed= [L/T] • Acceleration = [L/T 2 ] o Derived quantities—built from basic quantities Density: = p mV Units — [M]/[L 3 ] ⇒ kg/m 3- Estimates and Order of Magnitude o Order of Magnitude—What power of 10 is the number closest to?...
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Chapter 1 & 2 Notes - Chapter 1& 2 Notes ERes...

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