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Unformatted text preview: The Schools of Psychology From psychology's beginnings to about 1970 A school is: 0. Sometimes these schools were located inside of specific universities, but sometimes they involved people from more than one university. Structuralism Edward Titchener: a student of Wundt's Began the school called Structuralism What: How: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Titchener pictured conscious experience to be like chemistry. Mental Chemistry The mind is made up of elements of experience. These elements combine into the whole of the momentary experience. The unique combination of elements make up your experience of the moment. Three Types of Elements: 9. Example: Seeing a red rose lying on a table Titchener's Goals 0. Titchener wanted to identify all the elements of conscious experience through the use of introspection. 1. Then he wanted to see how they combined into the experience of the moment. 2. He spent most of his time trying to identify the elements of consciousness. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Koffka 8. He identified tens of thousands of elements. He never got to study how they combined. Eventually, scientists got bored and frustrated with structuralism. Gestalt Psychology The term "gestalt" means "whole form" This school was founded by three German psychologists: Wertheimer, Khler, and What: 9. How: 10. The Gestalt psychologists believed that the structuralists had the sequence of perception backwards. 11. Gestalt psychologists believed that: 12. The whole was perceived before the elements. 10. Gestalt psychologists believed that the whole of perception was perceived before the individual elements. 11. The whole is different from (or more than) the sum of the parts. 12. They conducted many demonstrations concerning the perception of whole forms. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. William James William James was a forerunner to the school called functionalism. He developed the first teaching laboratory for psychology in the U.S. in 1875. He wrote the first introductory textbook for psychology. Functionalism Many functionalists took ideas from William James. What: 18. How: 19. 20. 21. 22. Functionalists were concerned with why humans have conscious experience Rather than what is the structure of conscious experience Darwin's ideas of adaptation heavily influenced the functionalists. Example: Habits and their purpose 13.
14. Psychoanalysis and Freud Freud published the Interpretation of Dreams in 1900. What: 15. How: 16. One of the first influential people to say that their may be unconscious experiences that you are not aware of but that do influence thoughts, feelings, and behaviors 17. 18. Behaviorism and John Watson John Watson began behaviorism in 1913. What: 19. How: 20. Watson believed that because the mind could only be directly observed by the person having the experience, and could not be observed from the outside, then it could NOT be studied scientifically. 23. Behavior could be observed from the outside and could be studied scientifically. 24. Scientists could formulate laws of human and animal behavior. 25. Behavior could be predicted and controlled. 26. Behaviorists often presented stimuli and measured responses. 27. Examples: See green light, you go; see red light, you stop. See food, you eat; tap on your knee and your leg jerks. B. F. Skinner and Neobehaviorism 21. In 1940, Skinner continued behaviorism with a new behaviorism. He began examining the effects of 22. This work continued and behaviorism ruled psychology in the U.S. until about the 1960's or 1970's. These ideas are still influential today. Humanistic Psychology In the 1950's and 1960's, some psychologists became tired of the mechanistic, robotic view of behaviorism and the emphasis of the unconscious and sexuality of psychoanalysis. 1. They believed that people were not solely driven by responses to stimuli or by unconscious forces. 2. What: 0. 3. How: 4. Humanistic psychologists believed that people make conscious choices and have some degree of free will. 5. They believe that people want to grow as individuals. People set goals and act on those goals. People create their own experiences. Cognitive Psychology 28. In the 1950's and 1960's another group of psychologists considered what we knew about the processing of information by computers and applied those ideas to humans. 29. What: 30. How: 31. The reaction time experiments described earlier are one example. 32. Studied what a person remembers, learns, forgets, and deals with various types of information. ...
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- Fall '06