LearningConditioning2 - Operant (or Instrumental)...

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Operant (or Instrumental) Conditioning Edward Thorndike first studied another form of learning by giving animals puzzles to solve. He wanted to understand animal intelligence. In many of his experiments he used cats and placed them in closed box and rigged a response that would open the box. Example: step on lever, open box. When placed in the box, the cat would initially do “cat things”. Eventually, the cat would accidentally step on the lever and the box would open. Over time, the cats more and more quickly stepped on the lever. Thorndike proposed the law of effect: Operant Behavior: Operant Conditioning: Skinner Boxes : An apparatus, invented by Skinner, used to study the effects of reinforcement on the behavior of laboratory animals. Reinforcement: Positive Reinforcement: Behavior --------- Reward Help a friend with homework ------ the friend treats you to dinner. Future behavior? You are more likely to help your friend again the next time he or she needs help.
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Get a good grade ------- Your parents give you money Future behavior? You are more likely to try to get a good grade. Rat in Skinner Box: Press Bar ---- Get Food Pellet Future Behavior? Rat is more likely to keep pressing the bar (as long as it is hungry and food continues to be reinforcing). Negative Reinforcement: In the future, this behavior is more likely to occur whenever the undesirable situation reoccurs. Baby is crying ----- You pick the baby up --- baby stops crying. Future Behavior? The next time the baby cries, you are more likely to pick the baby up. You are cold --- You put on a sweater --- You feel warmer. Future Behavior? The next time you are cold, you are more likely to put on extra clothes. Rat in a Skinner Box:
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Acorn during the Fall '06 term at Lander.

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LearningConditioning2 - Operant (or Instrumental)...

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