Unformatted text preview: Read Modules 30 and 31 Definition of Emotion: Emotion Feeling State Feeling: what most people think of as being an emotion. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. Feelings are internal to the person And cannot be seen or felt by other people Measuring feelings usually involves: Self-report Asking people how they feel. 0. On a scale of 1 7 how do you feel right now? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Relaxed Tense Other characteristics of the emotions Physiological Arousal Physiological arousal is: 5. 6. 7. 8. One of the ways the body responds is to prepare for action. This "fight or flight" response is based on 9. This arousal allows you to 10. 11. Most of the time our reactions are less intense than needing to survive but we still have the basic fight or flight reactions. The Autonomic Nervous System Specific Patterns of Arousal 0. 1. 0. 1. 12. Does the body do different things for different emotions? Table on p. 474 shows how people described the symptoms of different emotional experiences. These people were from 37 different countries. What symptoms seem to differentiate these emotions? One use of the Physiological Arousal One use is the Lie Detector Test: A Polygraph Test is based on 13. 14. 2. Particularly the emotions involved in guilt and deceit Lie Detector Tests: Polygraph Tests Polygraph 0. Records multiple channels of autonomic arousal and is often used as a lie-detector test. 0. Scientific opinion is split regarding whether the polygraph works. 1. See information in text about these tests The Expressive Component Expressive Behaviors Certain behaviors may tend to go with certain emotions. Psychologists want to know what behaviors occur in what situations. 15. 16. 17. Think of one emotion and the outward actions that might indicate that that emotion is present. 3. 4. 5. Some factors might influence which behaviors occur (when someone might fight, run, laugh, act calm, etc.) What could determine which behaviors occur? We will now look at four factors that could help predict which behaviors will occur with which emotional situations 1) Innate Common Responses 18. As humans, when a baby is hurting, what behaviors can you expect to see? 2) Evolutionary Purpose 19. Sometimes we consider the purpose behind the behavior 20. An early suggestion by Plutchik in 1980 was that the following emotions were based on the paired evolutionary needs: 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Fear: Escaping danger Anger: Attacking and overcoming barriers and opponents Joy: Mating Sadness: Crying for help and coping with loss Acceptance: Bonding with others Disgust: Rejecting bad substances Interest: Exploring new phenomena Surprise: Responding to new experiences Innate Common Responses and Evolutionary Purposes These first two factors result from For us, they come from common human traits. The next two factors come from an individual's experiences or culture. 3) A Person's Learning History In a person's learning history, we see 29.
30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. When you are angry, what have you learned to do? What did your parents, teachers, etc. expect from you? 4) Social Expectations Social expectations are 37. 38. In U.S. culture, when can women cry in public? When can men cry in public? 39. The Expressive Component: Nonverbal Communication and Body Language Part of the Expressive Component is what we do with our faces and bodies The Expressive Component: Facial Expressions 40. Ekman and Friesen's work on facial expressions 41. These two researchers examined the facial expressions people show and recognize in different cultures 42. The question that they wanted to answer was: 43. Are facial expressions universal (the same across all cultures) 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Let's take a look at some faces. For each one: What emotion do you think is being expressed? Adults learn to control their facial expressions. We can also look at the facial expressions of babies Babies do not control their expressions. How Well do People Identify Facial Expressions of Emotions? Are facial expressions universal? Generally, the answer is yes. The basic emotions result in the same basic facial expressions in people from across different cultures. The Expressive Component: Facial Expressions 6. 7. 8. Scientists measure facial muscle activity Electrodes placed on the face record activity in various muscles. Positive emotions increase activity in cheeks. Negative emotions increase activity in forehead and brow areas. The Expressive Component Sensory Feedback Facial-Feedback Hypothesis The hypothesis that Experiment that tested the Facial Feedback Hypothesis Zajonc, et al. had subjects repeat vowel sounds. Making some sounds - "ah" and "e" 0. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The facial muscle movements were similar to smiling and people reported elevated mood. Making other sounds - "u" and "" were similar to frowning and lowered mood. Expressive Behaviors: Body Language 50. A person communicates his or her feelings and relationship to another person through body language. 51. Can you think of one body language action that you use? And what does it mean? Some types of body language studied and measured by psychologists 52. Body positioning 53. Body lean 54. Walking style 55. Gaze 56. Touch 57. Handshakes Example of body language 9. Body lean: We lean towards those people we like or are interested in listening to 10. We lean away from those people we don't like 11. Body lean can be measured in degrees from the vertical 58. Each culture has Cultural Display Rules 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 12. 13. Example: Japanese culture says it is shameful to express anger in public. In some other cultures expressions of anger may be expected. Cultural Concepts for emotion Different cultures have different words to describe emotions. Russell (1991) indicated that English has 2000 emotion words Taiwanese has 750 The Chewong of Malasia have 7 Japanese does not have a word for disappointed. Does this mean that Japanese speakers do not become disappointed? How much does language form thinking and how much does thinking form language? Cognitive Appraisal Remember that cognitive means "thought" (memory, thinking, learning). A cognitive appraisal is the 69. Some situations seem to elicit emotions without thought. 70. Other emotions seem to be produced by thoughts. 71. Which comes first? Emotions or Thoughts? This is a kind of "chicken and the egg" problem for psychologists. 72. Happiness: What predicts it? Happiness can be defined as 73. Happiness is apparently NOT related to What does predict happiness? 74. These are tendencies, not absolutes 2. National Wealth and Happiness Over a 40-year period, Americans became over twice as wealthy, but no happier. How do we decide whether or not we are doing well? And thus, can be happy? 1. Social-Comparison Theory The theory that people 75. 2. 3. 76. 4. others These comparisons then lead us to feel good if we are better off than Or lead us to feel bad if we are worse off than others Adaptation-Level Theory The theory that 77. 78. If we are doing better than our usual we may feel good If we are doing worse than our usual we may feel bad Theories about Emotion 79. In the science of psychology, theories are: organized, cohesive explanations of behavior and experience. 80. Different theories may be presented to explain the same phenomenon. 81. Then hypotheses are formulated and tested in order to decide which theory best explains the actual evidence. ...
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- Fall '06
- Psychology, Ekman, Plutchik