Macromolecules - Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture...

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Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture Outlines Macromolecules Atoms Molecules Macromolecules A few common macromolecules in biology are POLYMERS of a particular class of molecule. Monomers Polymers Biological polymers are formed by a common reaction known as DEHYDRATION See Figure 5.2A: Water is removed (dehydration) to form a bond between the growing polymer and the next monomer subunit. Large biological polymers are broken down through the reverse reaction-- HYDROLYSIS (see Figure 5.2B): Water (H-OH) is added to break a covalent bond between subunits in a polymer. Three Major Polymers in Biology: Polysaccharides: Polymers of sugars (carbohydrates) Proteins: Polymers of amino acids Nucleic Acids: Polymers of nucleotides A Fourth Important Class of Macromolecules: Lipids: Nonpolar macromolecules triglycerides & phospholipids are constructed from fatty acids & glycerol (not simple polymers of many monomers linked end-to-end) steroids are complex hydrocarbon (C-H) ring structures POLYSACCHARIDES: Carbohydrates have the general chemical formula: (CH2O)n where "n" is 3 or greater Monosaccharides Polysaccharides We will focus on two primary classes of monosaccharides: 6 carbon sugars: glucose (see Figure 5.4): Two common forms of glucose -- α & β (see Figure 7.7a): (be able to draw and recognize structures) Differ only in the configuration of the -OH group on the no. 1 carbon ( α : -OH is down, β : -OH is up)
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Lux during the Fall '07 term at Lander.

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Macromolecules - Biology 111, Principles of Biology Lecture...

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