Theories of Emotions

Theories of Emotions - Common Sense View James-Lange theory...

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Unformatted text preview: Common Sense View James-Lange theory Cannon-Bard theory Schacter-Singer Two-Factor theory Four different theories of emotion Common Sense View This is what most people believe happens. Common Sense View FEAR! Heart Races! Adrenaline Pumps! You have a facial expression of fear! You RUN! James-Lange Theory In this theory, proposed by W illiam James and Carl Lange separately, The order of these events is reversed. You see the object, become physiologically aroused, you then change your actions and expressions. You then notice these changes, and finally experience the feeling. James-Lange Theory Heart Races! Your face shows a fear expression! You run! You then feel FEAR! Emotion arises from physiological arousal Happiness comes from smiling Sadness comes from crying James-Lange Theory of Emotion Cannon-Bard Theory Walter Cannon and Philip Bard worked together to formulate this idea. They believed that: Activated the person's facial expressions, actions, and feelings all at the same time. Cannon-Bard Theory Brain Area on Alert! FEAR! Facial expression of fear! Run! Heart Racing! This simultaneous triggering of these reactions was believed to originate in an area of the brain called: The Thalamus. W e now know that the thalamus is not involved in emotional reactions this way but there are areas of the brain responsible for emotions like fear (amygdala in the limbic system). Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Emotion originates in the thalamus "Body" (physiological systems) and "Mind" (emotional experience) are independently activated at the same time Schacter-Singer Two Factor Theory There are two factors or components to emotions. Each factor is required to feel the emotion. The Two Factors Physiological arousal Sweaty palms Increased heart rate Rapid breathing Cognitive Label Attribute source of arousal to a cause. To have an emotion, both factors are required. Physiological Arousal: Cognitive Label: Schacter-Singer Two Factor Theory Your Heart Races! And at the same time You Think to yourself: It's a Dangerous Dinosaur! You feel much FEAR! However, if instead of thinking that you see something out of Jurassic Park, you decide that you really see... You might have a very different emotional reaction. You have a different cognitive label (different thoughts about the object). You interpret the information as much less dangerous and threatening! Instead of FEAR, You might feel something entirely different. Core Relational Themes Richard Lazarus suggests that certain situations produce certain emotional responses because of the: Examples Envy: is triggered by wanting something another person has A desire for a benefit Like really wanting a boat somebody else has Anger: is triggered by being offended by someone else That person is perceived as a threat The Cognitive Component Dimensions of Appraisal Cognitive dimensions closely linked to emotion: Examples Surprise: A pleasant event It Grabs your Attention You are not in control of the event And you may not be completely sure of what is happening at first. F ear It is an unpleasant event It Grabs your Attention You do not have much control over what is happening And you may not be sure of what is happening! More examples of the dimensions of appraisal are given on p. 482 483. Russell's Circumplex Model W hich emotions are universal, felt in all cultures? Fear, anger, joy, disgust, surprise, and sadness Russell identified two main dimensions of emotion Emotions can be sorted according to these dimensions in several cultures The two main dimensions of the circumplex model are: Four types: pleasant-intense (delighted); unpleasant-intense (alarmed); pleasant- mild (relaxed); unpleasant-mild (bored) Are There Gender Differences in Emotion? Little support exists that the sexes differ in their actual feelings in response to similar events. However, there are differences in the public display of emotion. W omen are more expressive than men are. Are There Cultural Differences in Emotion? Some aspects of emotion seem universal. However, cultures affect the categorization of emotions and the display rules that govern when and where emotions can be expressed. ...
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