ece475-l3 - ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture...

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1 ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture - Instruction Set Principles Edward Suh C omputer S ystems L aboratory [email protected] ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 2 Review ± Quantify Cost NRE cost: design, tools, mask set, etc. IC cost: die + test + package Die: f(Area 2 ) + learning curve, volume, etc. ± Performance Inverse of time: response time or throughput Use benchmark suites and simulations to predict performance Summarizing performance: ratio + geometric mean ± Amdahl’s Law Performance gain limited by fraction of improved execution ± CPU Performance: T = IC x CPI x T clk
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2 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 3 Instruction Set Architecture ± Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is the HW/SW interface Agreement between software and hardware Defines the visible state of the system Defines how each instruction changes that state ± Programmers can use ISA to model HW Emulation or functional simulation ± Need to balance various goals Efficient implementation Easy for compilers to generate good code Small code size, etc. ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 4 Architecture vs. Implementation ± Architecture defines the “what” what is the programmer visible state what happens on each instruction ± Implementation defines the “how” the sequence of steps the time it takes ± Why separate architecture and implementation? compatibility longevity (x86!) amortize research investment retain software investment (SW is more important???)
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3 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 5 Architecture or Implementation? ± No. of GP registers ± Width of the data bus ± Binary representation of the instruction ± Number of cycles a floating point add takes ± Floating point format supported ± Size of the instruction cache ± Number of instructions that issue each cycle ± Number of addressing modes ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 6 Architecture Families ± Many architectures “grow” with time ± Companies make families of chips that run the same programs binary compatibility 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium 4 68000, 68008, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 R2000, R3000, R6000, R4000, R8000, R5000, R10000, R12000, R14000, R18000 ± Chips in same family do have different ISAs but core ISA is the same need to recompile to see new ISA benefits
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4 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 7 A General-Purpose Computer The von Neumann Model Many architectural approaches to the general purpose computer have been explored. The one on which nearly all modern, practical computers is based was proposed by John von Neumann in the late 1940s. Its major components
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