ece475-l3 - ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture -...

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1 ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture - Instruction Set Principles Edward Suh C omputer S ystems L aboratory suh@csl.cornell.edu ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 2 Review ± Quantify Cost • NRE cost: design, tools, mask set, etc. • IC cost: die + test + package • Die: f(Area 2 ) + learning curve, volume, etc. ± Performance • Inverse of time: response time or throughput • Use benchmark suites and simulations to predict performance • Summarizing performance: ratio + geometric mean ± Amdahl’s Law • Performance gain limited by fraction of improved execution ± CPU Performance: T = IC x CPI x T clk
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2 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 3 Instruction Set Architecture ± Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is the HW/SW interface • Agreement between software and hardware • Defines the visible state of the system • Defines how each instruction changes that state ± Programmers can use ISA to model HW • Emulation or functional simulation ± Need to balance various goals • Efficient implementation • Easy for compilers to generate good code • Small code size, etc. ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 4 Architecture vs. Implementation ± Architecture defines the “what” • what is the programmer visible state • what happens on each instruction ± Implementation defines the “how” • the sequence of steps • the time it takes ± Why separate architecture and implementation? • compatibility • longevity (x86!) • amortize research investment • retain software investment (SW is more important???)
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3 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 5 Architecture or Implementation? ± No. of GP registers ± Width of the data bus ± Binary representation of the instruction ± Number of cycles a floating point add takes ± Floating point format supported ± Size of the instruction cache ± Number of instructions that issue each cycle ± Number of addressing modes ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 6 Architecture Families ± Many architectures “grow” with time ± Companies make families of chips that run the same programs • binary compatibility – 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium 4 – 68000, 68008, 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 – R2000, R3000, R6000, R4000, R8000, R5000, R10000, R12000, R14000, R18000 ± Chips in same family do have different ISAs but core ISA is the same need to recompile to see new ISA benefits
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4 ECE 475/CS 416 — Computer Architecture, Fall 2007, Suh 7 A General-Purpose Computer The von Neumann Model Many architectural approaches to the general purpose computer have been
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ece475-l3 - ECE 475/CS 416 Computer Architecture -...

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