Lecture Feb 7 - Stimulants and Depressants Stimulating...

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Stimulants and Depressants Stimulating beverages Many important beverages worldwide are stimulants o Coffee o Tea o Chocolate A stimulant contains caffeine or similar compounds which stimulate the nervous system. It is the most widely used psychoactive drug. Coffee o Comes from a small tree o Native to tropical Africa (Ethiopia) Leaves and berries were chewed to dispel fatigue o Spread to Europe in the 1600s and became very popular The coffee market was originally controlled by Arabs who dipped the seed in boiling water before giving them to Europeans which killed them. The Dutch were able to obtain live seeds and planted them in the East Indies. They then spread to Brazil. Thus the Arab monopoly on coffee was broken. Coffee is processed in two steps, roasting and grind & brew. When roasting seeds, 200°C water is used for a light roast and 230°C water is used for a dark roast. This roasting causes essential oils to come to the surface. The beans feel oily during this process. The grind and brew step consists of water passing through the beans and picking up flavors. Cacao o Comes from a small tree o Native to tropical Americas o The scientific name means “food of the gods” Montezuma, the last ruler of the Aztecs drank hot chocolate. Hot chocolate was made from ground cacao seeds, ground annatto seeds, red pepper and vanilla. This was then heated, molded into small blocks. The block was dissolved into hot water and thickened with cornmeal. Cortez brought the drink back to Europe. It was hop popular so spices were nixed from the ingredients and cinnamon and sugar are added. They became very popular in the 1600s.
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Cacao is processed by hand picking pods, the seeds are removed. The moist seeds ferment for 4-7 days. The seeds then dry and are roasted from 100-200°C. They are then cracked open to release cotyledons.
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course BIO_SCI 114 taught by Professor Russin during the Winter '08 term at Northwestern.

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Lecture Feb 7 - Stimulants and Depressants Stimulating...

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