Study guide2 - BAROQUE 1600-1750 The Age of Absolutism History\/Cultural Background pp 99-107 Aristocracy is very rich and powerful Louis XIV

Study guide2 - BAROQUE 1600-1750 The Age of Absolutism...

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Unformatted text preview: BAROQUE, 1600-­‐1750 “The Age of Absolutism” History/Cultural Background: pp. 99-­‐107 Aristocracy is very rich and powerful: Louis XIV – Versailles (France); Frederick the Great (Prussia); Germany – some 300 aristocratic rulers. Church: divided and less powerful. -­‐ Protestant (Germany, England, Holland, Sweden, Denmark) -­‐ Catholic (France, Spain, Italy, Austria) Art: Emphasizing action, drama, movement, dramatic potential of colors, and contrasts of light and dark. (Famous artists: Caravaggio, Gentileschi, Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt) Literature: Be able to name 2 literary works by different authors, written during this time. Science: Galileo: earth revolves around the sun, Newton: Principia Mathematica Music: Claudio Monteverdi (1567-­‐1643) Henry Purcell (1659-­‐1695) Arcangelo Corelli (1653-­‐1713) Antonio Vivaldi (1678-­‐1741) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-­‐1750) Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-­‐1759) Three Eras: • Early Baroque Music (1600-­‐1640): homophonic texture, dramatic contrasts, expressive music, dissonances, theatrical, the genre of the Opera is born (first opera composers: Jacopo Peri, Claudio Monteverdi). • Middle Baroque Music (1640-­‐1680): major and minor scales established. Instrumental music rises in prominence. • Late Baroque Music (1680-­‐1750). Characteristics: Unity of mood, Doctrine of affections – specific musical language, to depict certain emotional states (affections), such as joyful, sad, festive, peaceful. Continuity of rhythm (very clear definition of beat) Polyphonic texture preferred, homophonic is also used Melodic continuity, sequences Terraced dynamics Basso continuo (also referred to as figured bass) Words + music (word painting, descriptive musical language) Forming of the baroque orchestra multi-­‐movement forms, such as the concerto (ex.: I. Allegro-­‐II. Largo-­‐ III. Vivace) Music written to order Rise of the virtuoso musician Basic Terms basso continuo. A bass part together with numbers (figures) specifying the chords to be played above it, characteristic of the baroque. Played by two instruments, often a cello-­‐like instrument and harpsichord (or bass-­‐lute and portable organ). terraced dynamics. The sudden alternation between soft and loud dynamics in baroque music. movement. A section that sounds complete and independent but is part of a larger composition. Affections refer to emotional states or moods of music in the baroque. Music in the baroque society Most music was written to order, and concerts were performed at courts and churches. The ordinary citizen’s opportunities for hearing music usually came from the church. In Italy, music schools were often connected with orphanages. The music director of a court in the baroque period supervised and directed the musical performances, composed much of the music required, and was also responsible for the discipline of other musicians. Concerto grosso and Ritornello form (p. 108-­‐109) The large group of players in the concerto grosso is known as tutti, and the small group of soloists is called concertino. A concerto usually has three movements (I. fast II. slow III. fast.) The first and last movements are usually in ritornello form. (Ritornello form: alternating Tutti and Concertino/Solo parts: Ritornello, solo, ritornello, solo, ritornello, solo, etc…,ritornello.) Fugue (p.111-­‐113) The main theme of the fugue is the subject. The melodic idea that constantly accompanies the subject of a fugue is the countersubject. The transitional sections of the fugue that usually offer new thematic material or only fragments of the subject/countersubject are the episodes. A single tone, usually in the bass, that is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it is called the pedal point. When the subject is simultaneously present in more than one voice, it is called stretto. Opera (p. 115-­‐120) Opera is a dramatic play, set to music and sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and acting. overture. The orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises to set the mood. recitative. Vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. aria. Emotional song, usually in ABA (Da Capo) form, for solo voice &orchestral accompaniment. In a typical baroque aria the singer was expected to embellish the returning melody with ornamental tones. A musical number for two solo voices & orchestral accompaniment is a duet; and more than two solo voices: ensemble. Most of early baroque operas were based on Greek mythology and ancient history. The first opera house opened in 1637 in Venice, Italy. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-­‐1643) The works of Italian composer Monteverdi mark the transition from the grand polyphony of the Renaissance to expressive solo style of the Early Baroque. He wrote madrigals throughout his lifetime, and was one of the first composers of operas. In his opera Orfeo (1607), Monteverdi creates variety by using many kinds of music: recitatives, arias, duets, choruses, and instrumental interludes, weaving them into one dramatic whole. Opera film: Henry Purcell (1659-­‐1695) Purcell’s standing as a composer gave England a leading position in the world of Baroque music. A truly international figure, Purcell wrote in many genres, assimilating the Italian operatic style with the majesty of French music. In his opera, Dido and Aeneas (1689) in the last aria (Dido’s Lament) Purcell uses a musical idea in the bass repeated over and over: the ground bass (basso ostinato). Opera film: Baroque Trio Sonata Baroque trio sonatas usually involve four people (two high-­‐pitch instruments, plus the basso continuo played on a low melodic instrument and harpsichord). Types: Sonata da chiesa (played in church); Sonata da camera (chamber sonata played in palaces, homes). Arcangelo Corelli (1653-­‐1713) was a master of baroque trio sonatas. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-­‐1741) Though ordained in the church while in his twenties, for the greater part of his career Vivaldi was the music master at the music conservatory of Pieta in Venice (a school attached to charitable institutions established for the upbringing of orphaned or illegitimate children). As a composer Vivaldi is most famous of his concerti grossi and solo concerti written for a great variety of instruments. The Four Seasons includes four concerti: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, each containing 3 movements. These works are examples of baroque program music, as each movement depicts the sounds and events associated with the season. A sonnet precedes and describes each concerto. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-­‐1750) J. S. Bach is the culminating figure of the late Baroque style and one of the giants in the history of music. The longest period of Bach’s professional life was spent as a director of music at St. Thomas Lutheran Church in Leipzig. Bach’s works are unique in their combination of rich polyphonic and homophonic textures. Bach achieves unity of mood in his compositions by using an insistent rhythmic drive. Of J. S. Bach’s twenty children four became well-­‐known composers. J. S. Bach created masterpieces in every baroque form, except the opera. Baroque Suite: Sets of dance-­‐inspired movements. The dances differ in national origin, tempo, and meter, however, all movements are in the same key. Chorale/ Church Cantata In J. S. Bach’s day, the Lutheran church service usually lasted for four hours. Chorale was a Lutheran congregational hymn tune. Cantatas often used chorales as their basic melody. Bach’s cantatas were choral works sung by soloists and choir with orchestral accompaniment. Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us) is one of the most famous cantatas of J. S. Bach. recording: Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-­‐1759) If J.S. Bach represents the spirituality of the late Baroque, Handel embodies its worldliness. Though born in the same year, the two giants of the age never met. Handel wrote a great deal of instrumental music, but the core of his huge output consists of English oratorios and Italian operas. His more than forty Italian operas tell stories of heroes and adventures. His oratorios are usually based on the text of the Old Testament. His most famous oratorio, the Messiah, is an exception. Oratorio Large scale vocal form for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. First appeared in Italy, oratorios were dramatizations of biblical stories. Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no acting, scenery, and costumes. The story is carried forward by the narrator’s recitatives. The chorus is especially important and serves to comment on, or participate in the drama. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD, 1750-­‐1820 “The Age of Enlightenment” History/Cultural Background: pp. 153-­‐161 -­‐ History: (Be able to name at least 2 historical events) Seven Years’ War (1756-­‐1763), Louis XVI (France), Joseph II (Austro-­‐Hungarian Empire), American Declaration of Independence (1776), French Revolution (1789) “Liberty, equality, fraternity”, Napoleonic wars (1803-­‐1815). Social mobility during the classical period was an important factor in the rise of the middle class. -­‐ Faith in power of reason as the best guide to human conduct -­‐ Impartial in approach; reality rather than illusion -­‐ Emphasis on Classic balance, symmetry and clarity of structures -­‐ Philosophers/writers: Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Goethe -­‐ Artists: David, Goya, Hogarth Music: • Center of musical activities: Vienna (Austria) • Composers: Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven Characteristics of music: Mood: greater variety and contrast than Baroque Rhythm: more flexibility and variety Texture: predominantly homophonic (melody + accompaniment) Melody: symmetrical, tuneful, balanced, easy to remember Dynamics: gradual dynamic changes (crescendo/decrescendo) are widely used. The newly invented instrument, the piano, can produce dynamic changes. No more Basso Continuo Evolution of the standard orchestra of four sections: Strings (1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, cello, double-­‐bass), Woodwinds (2 of each), Brass (2 of each), Percussion (timpani). Composer, Patron, and Public in the Classical Period Emancipation of the composer: Haydn still was content to be serving a wealthy aristocratic family; but Mozart broke from his court position and worked as freelance musician; Beethoven was able to support himself well as an independent musician from the start. With the rise of the middle class, public concerts and musical pieces for outdoor entertainment, such as divertimento and serenade, are more and more popular. Sonata Form Sonata form is usually the form of the first movement of a classical symphony, classical sonata, classical string quartet, and classical concerto. Exposition (repeated) – Development – Recapitulation – (Coda: optional). Terms: First theme, bridge or transition, contrasting second theme, closing section. In sonata form, the development section features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay. The first movement of Mozart’s G-­‐minor Symphony, No. 40 is in sonata form. Theme and Variations The musical idea (theme) is repeated many times but changed each time. It may be schematically outlined as A A’ A’’ A’’’ A’’’’ etc. Each variation retains some elements of the theme. The second movement of Haydn’s Surprise Symphony is in theme and variation form. Minuet and Trio (often just called Minuet) It is generally the third movement of a classical symphony or string quartet; Minuet was originally a stately, dignified dance in triple meter in which the couple exchanged curtsies and bows. In classical compositions it is dance-­‐inspired, but not danced. It is light in character, and is an A B A form. The third movement of Mozart’s Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is a Minuet. In many of Beethoven’s compositions the Minuet is substituted with the playful scherzo. Rondo A tuneful main theme returns several times in alternation with other themes. A common rondo pattern is A B A C A D A etc.. or A B A C A B A. The main theme is usually lively. The fourth movement of Beethoven’s String Quartet in C Minor is a rondo in Gypsy style. Classical Symphony Orchestral composition consisting of four movements: I. Fast (most dramatic, and is in Sonata-­‐form) II. Slow III. Dance-­‐related IV. Fast Classical Concerto Composition for orchestra and soloist, consisting of three movements, like the baroque concerto (I. fast, II. slow, III fast). First movement is in sonata form with a double-­‐exposition (orchestra plays first, then the soloist plays the second exposition). An unaccompanied showpiece for the concerto’s soloist is known as the cadenza. The cadenza is often improvised by the soloist and shows the brilliance of the solo instrument as well as the virtuosity of the player. Classical Chamber Music It is designed for the intimate setting of a small room in a home or palace, not a public concert hall. The most important form of classical chamber music is the String Quartet (2 violins, a viola, and a cello). Other forms of classical chamber music are: Piano Trio, Piano Quintet, Sextet, Septet, Octet. The Viennese Composers Joseph Haydn (1732-­‐1809) – p. 174 Pathfinder for the classical style. He was a pioneer in the development of the classical symphony and string quartet. Along with his 104 symphonies, Haydn’s 68 string quartets and two oratorios are considered his most important works. Haydn worked serving the aristocratic family of Esterhazy. His duties were: composing all music requested by his patron, conducting the orchestra, coaching singers. His music radiates a healthy optimism, features lively rhythms, lots of contrasts of dynamics, mood, and texture, and folk-­‐like melodies. Haydn was given an honorary doctorate at Oxford, and received by the royal family in England. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-­‐1791) – p. 177 Was born in Salzburg, became a child-­‐prodigy, who toured entire Europe as a child performer, improviser/composer. At age 25 he moved to Vienna and became a freelance musician. Mozart was one of the most versatile composers in the history of music. His music sings and conveys a feeling of ease, grace, and spontaneity, as well as balance, restraint, and perfect proportion. His music fuses elegance with power. His most famous works are his operas and piano concertos. Operas: Don Giovanni (Italian), The Magic Flute (German). Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-­‐1827) – p. 190 He opened new realms of musical expression; his music is more powerful and expressive, using a larger scale of contrasts, and a wider range of pitch, dynamic, and tonality. Beethoven’s music was not written for mere entertainment but with a high moral content. He was born in Bonn, Germany, but at the age of 22 he moved to Vienna where he studied with Haydn, and worked as an independent musician. Towards the end of his life he became completely deaf and isolated. This last period of compositions reflect a new world of sounds that are much more dissonant and “modern” than his early works. The most famous compositions are his 9 symphonies, 32 piano sonatas, concertos, and 16 string quartets. ESSAY TOPICS: Choose one (you can find plenty of information on these topics in your book) 1. Describe the various components of Baroque opera, commenting on the function of each to the drama 2. Describe the development and structure of the Classical symphony. Which composers contributed to the genre? ...
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