study guide 1

study guide 1 - STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1 1) Maturation a)...

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STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1 1) Maturation a) Behavior changing as a results of the passage of time 2) Motivation a) A temporary change in behavior that results form temporary changes in internal or external states b) This is not associative learning 3) Learning a) Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience with environment and cannot be solely explained by motivation, maturation, or innate response tendencies (reflexes) 4) Imprinting a) During the critical period in development, when an animal attaches to another member (usually adult) of the species (but can attach to another species) 5) Modal Action Patterns a) High level, complex reflexes, behaviors that occur in a sequence 6) What is the difference between habituation and sensitization 7) What type of learning is habituation and sensitization an example of? a) Non-associative learning i) You are not making associations (relationships) of stimuli in the environment , you are just reacting ( think : when being tickled, you aren’t thinking about how being tickled makes you laugh, you are simply laughing, or, in other words, you are just reacting and not forming any associations.) 8) What is the difference between Primary A process and Opponent B process? a) Primary A process i) When stimuli cause an initial large response, and you have very little adaptation to that stimulus ii) Is only present when stimulus is present - when stimulus starts, so does the Primary A process and both end together. b) Opponent B process i) Begins during A, but is slower to decay after A has already ended – this is why we see the “after effect” ii) ex: if someone jumps out at you and scares you Habituation Sensitization A decrease in responsiveness after repeated stimulation An increase in responsiveness after repeated stimulation Respond to specific stimuli Respond to similar stimuli Longer lasting More temporary Tend to habituate to less intense, less threatening stimuli Tend to sensitize if stimuli is threatening or intense Think: under react (ex: you habituate to the constant stimuli around you, such as students in class who are shuffling papers) Think: overreact (ex: tickling, an allergic reactions)
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(1) someone jumping out at you is the stimulus, while your fear is the response, however, when you realize you aren’t in danger, you feel relief – this feeling of relied is the after effect, or the opponent B process c) Think : A and B have a sort of tug-of-war, A tarts pulling first (when you are initially scared, all you feel is fear), however, your body wants to counteract that fear, so the B process starts – thus, the B side would start tugging back on the
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study guide 1 - STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1 1) Maturation a)...

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