Study Guide Exam I

Study Guide Exam I - 1. Define Homeostasis: The dynamic...

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1. Define Homeostasis: The dynamic constancy of the internal environment, the maintenance of which is the principal function of physiological regulatory mechanisms. The concept of homeostasis provides a framework for understanding most physiological processes. 2. What are the basic components of a control system? -Amount of blood volume -Amount of H20 volume -Ex.) Body Temperature of 98.6 degrees F, or 37 degrees C. -As body temperature goes up you begin to sweat and the skin becomes red. -As body temperature goes down you begin to shiver and skin becomes pale. -Temperature Sensor – Hypothalamus and it sends signals about the above symptoms. -Signals are sent through the CNS, and Horomones. -1. Set Point -2. Sensor -3. Control Point -4. Monitor Center 3. Distinguish between: a. Negative Feedback – A response mechanism that serves to maintain a state of internal constancy, or homeostasis. Effectors are activated by changes in the internal environment, and the inhibitory actions of the effectors serve to counteract these changes and maintain a state of balance. i. Example(s): Life b. Positive Feedback – A response mechanism that results in the amplification of an initial change. Positive feedback results in avalanche like effects, as occur in the formation of a blood clot or in the production of the LH surge by the stimulatory effect of estrogen. i. Example(s): Birth and Clotting 4. Should have basic knowledge as to make up of the: a. Atom – The molecular unit that makes up anything and everything. b. Atomic Number – A whole number representing the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom. c. Atomic Weight - d. Isotopes - e. Molecular Weight - 5. Define or have understanding of the following terms: a. Mole - b. Osmole - c. Equivalents - d. Milliequivalents - e. gm% - f. mgm% - g. vol% - 6. How many particles are in a mole of Na + ions? How many grams of sodium are required to have a mole of Na? How many grams of NaCl are
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required to have a mole of NaCl? How would you make a one molar NaCl solution? How many particles would you have in that one molar solution of NaCl? How many particles would you have in that one molar solution of NaCl? What is the osmotic capacity of a one molar solution of NaCl? How would you make a one molar solution of CaCl 2 and what is it osmotic capacity (ionizes in water)? 7. What are the four major categories of organic molecules of the body? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Found in protein ONLY 8. What is meant by these structures of protein? a. Primary Structure – The sequence of amino acids in the protein is described; this is called the primary structure of the protein. Each type of protein has a different primary structure . All of the billions of copies of a give type of protein in a person have the same structure, however, because the structure of a given protein is coded by the person’s gene’s. b.
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Study Guide Exam I - 1. Define Homeostasis: The dynamic...

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