Themes of the Theology of the 19th Century

Themes of the Theology of the 19th Century - Themes of the...

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Themes of the Theology of the 19 th Century: I. Doctrine of God: Particularly noting the swing from Divine Transcendence to Immanence, and then back to Transcendence again. Trans. (1) “Qualitative Difference” (2) Discontinuity 18 th century Deism stressed Divine Transcendence in a radical sort of way, God disassociated from human affairs in a practical sort of way. Early 18 th century rationalism (Wolf) followed in much the same vein, making the supernatural rather inconsequential for human life. Kant, working toward the close of the same century, mitigated the rationalist trend somewhat through his phenomenal-noumenal distinction. There is a reality that transcends our empirical reason, and that reality is known intuitively. Real danger of this duality is the tendency to separate the transcendent from the realm of history and data. In the thought of Schleiermacher and Hegel, the Kantian sense of intuitive perception had grown into an immanentist (pantheistic) conception of God. For Schleiermacher religion is the recognition and experience of one’s dependence upon “the Universe.” The creator-creation distinction is blurred. In Hegel’s thought God is the force or movement of truth and coherence in history; God is the Mind, the Eternal who both brings and is the realization of the Ideal. In his thought discontinuity is lost. 1919 Barth (using Kierkegaard) recovers the stress upon Divine Transcendence; 1950 Bultmann returns the stress upon Immanence. II. Christology: Philosophical theologians (Justin Martyr) and Mystics (John of Cross) tended to stress deity of Christ; Arians (heretics) stressed only the humanity of Christ. Most have sought to hold the two aspects together. Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas, Luther, Calvin, etc. From the rise of Deism and the Enlightenment onwards very little is said about Jesus being the Christ. Jesus has become the last great prophet and great moral teacher. He is in Schleiermacher an exemplary man who captured the truest perspective of what it means to be dependent upon the Universe. He was for Ritschl the one who had a unique perception of true
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Themes of the Theology of the 19th Century - Themes of the...

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