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Final review sheet

Final review sheet - 1 2 3 4 Chapter 14 Informational...

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Chapter 14 1. Informational Influence = Social influence that works through providing clues about the objective nature of an event or situation a. More has to do with information and pragmatics . 2. Normative Influence = Social influence that works through the person’s desire to be part of a group or to be approved of by others . a. It is to promote group cohesion and acceptance by the group 3. Asch’s Classical Conformity Experiments . a. Previous research had shown that people conform to others’ judgements when the objective evidence is ambiguous b. Asch expected to demonstrate that they would not conform when the evidence is clear-cut . c. Had people judge the length of the lines and 75 percent of the subjects at least conformed once . Most conformed more then one third . d. Indications suggest that the influence was partly informational but mostly normative . The reason was when the next subjects reply in private the rate of conformity dropped . e. Conformity is most often motivated by normative influence when the perceptual task is easy f. Informational influence when the task is difficult or ambiguous 4. Norms as Forces for Helpful and Harmful Actions a. The “Broken Windows” Theory of Crime (Keller) i. Crime is encouraged by physical evidence of chaos and lack of care . ii. Broken windows, litter send signals that disrespect for law is normal . b. Norms of public-service messages i. Cialdini=suggests that messages would be more effective if they emphasized that the majority of people behave in the desired way not the undesired way, and show the bad way as abnormal . ii. People taking petrified wood from natural forest, by emphasizing that many people steal, the first sign increased stealing c. conformity as a basis for failure to help i. Social psychologists have found that a person is much more likely to help in an emergency if he or she is the only witness than if one or more other witnesses are also present . ii. Each persons’ inaction can promote inaction in others through both normative and informational influences . d. Social Pressure in Group Discussions i. Group members influence each other through normative social pressure . ii. Group polarization =discussion pushes hat majority toward a more extreme view in the same direction as their initial view iii. Mock juries evaluated traffic-violation cases that had been constructed to produce either high or low initial judgments of guilt . e. what causes group polarization i. Informational explanations 1. group members hear other ppl’s arguments that are similar to their own or they validate it more by saying it out loud . ii. Normative explanations 1. attribute the polarization to people’s concerns about being approved of by other group members . 2. one-upmanship hypothesis =group members vie with one another to become the most vigorous supporter of the position that most people favor, and this competition pushes the group as a whole toward an increasingly extreme position 3. group differentiation hypothesis - people who see themselves as a group often
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