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1 ECOL182R INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY John PEPPER/Kevin BONINE/Peter CHESSON MIDTERM TWO 13 March 2008 STUDENT NAME:_______________________________________________________ Please Print: Last Name First Name USE A NUMBER TWO PENCIL, NO PEN! PLEASE CHOOSE THE ONE BEST ANSWER. 1. Which of these is NOT a fundamental principle of how science works? a. Occam’s razor b. parsimony c. experimentation d. falsifiability e. reflecting the opinion of the majority 2. Organisms are not perfectly adapted to their environment because a. they all share a common ancestor from a different planet b. environments can change faster than species’ ability to adapt c. we can prove there is no intelligent designer d. environments never change, but organisms do 3. Which of these would falsify evolutionary theory? a. a pre-Cambrian rabbit fossil b. advice of many respected religious figures c. discovery of pre-Christian writings about the origin of the earth and its inhabitants d. discovery of a non-white swan e . discovery of a letter written by Charles Darwin indicating that he made it all up 4. According to the theory of evolution by natural selection, genes mutate, ___________ are selected, and _____________ evolve. a. alleles, individuals b. individuals, populations c. species, alleles d. chromosomes, species 5. Most mutations are a. synonymous b. deleterious c. neutral d. beneficial e . duplications 6. The neutral theory of evolution was proposed by Kimura in the 1960s to explain a. why so many species can coexist b. why new species can exist alongside species that evolved earlier c. why prokaryotes have circular chromosomes d. the high number of substitutions and polymorphisms in the genome e . why sex ratios are typically equal in eukaryotes
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2 7. A good molecular clock should a. comprise mutations that can be correlated with changes in the fossil record b. involve genes that evolve at a similar rate across many taxa c. be part of a gene that plays the same role across many diverse taxa d. all of the above e . none of the above 8. What is the most common way that new functions of genes and proteins arises? a. synonymous mutations b. influence of either intelligent designer or Darwin c. gene duplication events d. Occam’s razor e . natural selection 9. In the instance of positive directional selection on a gene a. synonymous mutations are outnumbered by nonsynonymous b. nonsynonymous mutations are outnumbered by synonymous c. the number of synonymous mutations is about the same as the number of nonsynonymous d. K a < K s e . multiple insertion events make the genome larger 10. The phylogeny of a single gene may be different from that of the species it is in because a. species evolve faster than most genes b. individual genes could be transferred from one species to another c. of new genetic analysis tools d. of stabilizing selection 11. The genetic code is ___________ because many amino acids have more than one codon. The genetic code is ____________ because each codon is assigned only one amino acid. a. simple, complex
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