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The Civil war marked a great turning point in American History. In the last three decadesof the 19thcentury, the country was transformed from a rural republic to an urban state. Frontiersvanished in the face of westward expansion. Factories and steel mills appeared on the scene, fueled by immigrant labor streaming through Ellis Island. Great Transcontinental railroad lines linked the country together like never before. But, with these advances, came the evils of poverty and overcrowding. Poor working conditions and labor unrest married the workplace, and the growing output of factories, for the first time threatened the environment. It was in this setting that America came of age poised on the brink of a revolution, The American Industrial Revolution (Hawksworth, 2001). One of the most significant examples of corrupt business practices occurred in the railroad industry. Railroads were fast becoming the largest industry in the United States, with more than 1 million people working for railroad companies in 1900 (Bowles, 2011). Corruption took many forms, including rebates, which were favors to special customers (most often the largest shippers). This angered smaller companies who did not receive