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ch 2 neuroscience 1305 F07

ch 2 neuroscience 1305 F07 - Neuroscience Genetics and...

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Neuroscience, Genetics and Behavior
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Neural Communication Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links  between biology and behavior some biological psychologists call themselves  behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists,  behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists,  or   biopsychologists
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Neural Communication Neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive  messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers,  through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles  or glands Myelin Sheath   a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many  neurons enables greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
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Neuron Structure
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Myelin
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Neural Communication Action Potential   a neural impulse;  a brief electrical charge that  travels down an axon generated by the movement of positively charged  atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane Threshold   the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural  impulse
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Action Potential Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals
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Neural Communication Synapse  junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the  dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron tiny gap at this junction is called the  synaptic gap  or  cleft Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between  neurons when released by the sending neuron, neuro-transmitters travel  across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving  neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural  impulse
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Synaptic Transmission
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Neurotransmitters
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Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers  muscle contraction Endorphins  “morphine within”   natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters  linked to pain control and to pleasure
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The Nervous System Nervous System   the body’s electrochemical communication system  consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and  central nervous systems Central Nervous System (CNS)  
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