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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11: Intelligence
What is intelligence?
Adapt for goal-directed and adaptive behavior
effectively to the environment Learn from experience Understand complex ideas Engage in a variety of forms of reasoning Intelligence
What are intelligence tests measuring? Is intelligence culturally defined? Are intelligence tests culture free? Does it relate to speed of brain processing? Is intelligence singular or multiple abilities? What is Intelligence? Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a person's future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn a test designed to assess what a person has learned Achievement Test What is Intelligence?
a method of assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores is not something you have IQ is a score on a test it Origins of Intelligence Testing (Historical perspective) Francis Galton 1st to measure individual differences in mental ability standardized intelligence test Alfred Binet 1st Charles Spearman
g factor g-factor
math language music spatial
interpersonal Intrapersonal Origins of Intelligence Testing (Historical perspective) Standford-Binet Intelligence Test Lewis Terman 1st American test Intelligence Quotient (IQ) - William Stern Wechsler Intelligence tests 1st individually administered adult intell. test What is Intelligence? Intelligence Quotient (IQ) defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 IQ = ma/ca x 100 on contemporary tests the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 Assessing Intelligence Wechsler series of tests WAIS WISC - III
(16 - 74) (6 - 16) (4 - 6) Adults - III -R Children WPPSI Preschoolers Two subtest scores (Verbal & Performance) Assessing Intelligence
General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE
Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution Assessing Intelligence Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on: two halves of the test (internal consistency) alternate forms of the test (internal consistency) retesting the same individual (temporal consistency) Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to Assessing Intelligence Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion-related validity Assessing Intelligence
Football 10 linemen's 9 success
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 180 250 290
Little correlation within restricted range Greater correlation over broad range of body weights As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes Body weight in pounds Assessing Intelligence Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes The Normal Curve
Number of scores
95% of all people fall w/in 30 pts of 100 68% of people Score w/in 15 pts above or below 100 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 Wechsler intelligence score Are There Multiple Intelligences? Are There Multiple Intelligences? Savant Syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill Computation Drawing Music Robert Sternberg
Sternberg (1985, 1999, 2003) also agrees with Gardner, but suggests three intelligences rather than eight.
1. 2. 3. Analytical Intelligence: Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests. Creative Intelligence: Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations, generating novel ideas. Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts). Are There Multiple Intelligences? Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions Component
Perceive emotion Understand emotion Manage emotion Use emotion Description
Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories Predict emotions, how they change and blend Express emotions in different situations Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative Genetic Influences Heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes variability depends on range of populations and environments studied Genetic Influences
Similarity of 1.0 intelligence 0.9 scores 0.8 (correlation) 0.7
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
Identical twins reared together Identical twins reared apart Fraternal twins reared together Siblings Unrelated reared individuals together reared together The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
Why do groups differ in intelligence? How can we make sense of these differences? Ethnic Similarities and Differences
To discuss this issue we begin with two disturbing but agreed upon facts:
1. 2. Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores. Highscoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. Racial (Group) Differences
If we look at racial differences, white Americans score higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994).
WhiteAmericans Average IQ = 100 BlackAmericans Average IQ = 85 Hispanic Americans Environmental Effects
Differences in intelligence among these groups are largely environmental, as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than another. The Question of Bias
Aptitude tests are necessarily biased in the sense that they are sensitive to performance differences caused by cultural differences. However, aptitude tests are not biased in the sense that they accurately predict performance of one group over the other. Stereotype Threat
A stereotype threat is a selfconfirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among AfricanAmericans and among women of all colors. Stereotype Threat Stereotype Threat ...
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- Fall '07