Unformatted text preview: The English Reformation and the Puritans Political Crisis and the Break with the Catholic Church Strengthening England's Alliance with Spain Henry VII gave his eldest son, Arthur, in marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Arthur died and Catherine was married to his brother, Henry VIII Problem: Catherine did not bear Henry a legitimate male heir (though he had an illegitimate son). Solution to the Problem Requested an annulment of the marriage from the Pope New Problem: Catherine was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Both were allies of the Pope, who did not grant the annulment. Several Catholic universities were consulted and all declared Henry's marriage to Catherine invalid. 1534 Parliament enacted laws that severed ties with Rome, annulled Henry's marriage, and made Henry head of the Church of England. Canon law forbade marrying a brother's widow Official break with the Catholic Church was set in motion. The Church of England still remained Catholic in practice and doctrine during Henry's reign. Undercurrents for religious and doctrinal reformation were, however, present in England. Proclaimed "defender of the faith" by Pope Leo X for writing against Luther. Not so much reformation but restoration of the rights of the king over papal intervention Henry's marriages and their children Catherine Divorced Daughter Mary Anne Boleyn Executed for alleged Jane Seymour Died of natural causes Son Edward VI Wives after Jane: Anne of Cleaves (divorced) Kathryn Howard (executed) Katherine Parr (widowed) witchcraft, incest, and adultery Daughter Elizabeth Reforming the Liturgy 1547 Henry died and was succeeded by Edward VI During his reign the church liturgy and practices underwent reform. Laity given the cup Clergy were allowed to marry Book of Common Prayer Church liturgy was put in the common language Written by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury Catholic Resurgence and Persecution 1553 Edward died and was succeeded by his halfsister Mary Restored ties to Rome Persecuted Protestants Killed 300 Protestant leaders "Bloody Mary" Thomas Cranmer burned at the stake Several Protestants fled England, many taking refuge in Geneva. Elizabethan Settlement 1558 Mary died and is succeeded by Elizabeth Exiled Protestants returned shaped by Reformed theology that they had encountered on the continent. Elizabeth favored Protestant reforms in moderation. The religious settlement during her reign advocated inclusivism for most moderate Protestants. The ThirtyNine Articles were drafted and serve as the confessional foundation for the Anglican Church. Mildly Calvinistic, excluding Roman Catholics and more radical Protestants (Nonconformists, Independents, Puritans). Elizabeth dies in 1602 Rise of the Puritans A revival movement that sought in reformation the enrichment of understanding of God's truth, arousal of affections, increasing of ardor in one's devotions, and more love, joy, and firmness of Christian purpose in one's calling and personal life. In line with this, the ideal for the church was that through `reformed' clergy all the members of each congregation should be `reformed' brought, that is, by God's grace without disorder into a state of what we would call revival, so as to be truly and thoroughly converted, theologically orthodox and sound, spiritually alert and expectant, in character terms wise and steady, ethically enterprising and obedient, and humbly but joyously sure of their salvation. (quote from J. I. Packer) Puritans did not believe that the compromise achieved in the Elizabethan Settlement went far enough in reforming the English Church. Those who wanted to "purify" the Church of England Episcopal authority Presbyterian authority Those who wanted to separate from the Church of England Congregational authority Puritans tended to be Calvinistic in their doctrine. Puritan Rule 16491658 Protectorate Civil War broke out in England. Puritans had gained control of parliament Sought the support of the invading Scots in order to force Charles I to give in to the demands of the parliament. Sought not just political but religious alliance with the Scots Drafted the Westminster Confession which became a fundamental document for Calvinistic orthodoxy. Due to the Scottish influence, the WC advocates presbyterian rule in the church. In 1649, executed Charles I and attempted a republican form of rule. William Perkins "Father of English Puritanism" 15581602 ...
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- Spring '07
- Protestant Reformation, English Reformation, Henry VIII of England, Henry