BIPN 100 Final Fortes

BIPN 100 Final Fortes - D2 RA 6.502 F991 BIPN 100 Mammalian...

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Unformatted text preview: D2 . RA. 6.502% F991?) BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 1 i Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer \/1. Positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops A.‘ Cancel a change; keep physiological parameters constant @ Amplify a change; cancel a change C. Cancel a change; amplify a change D. Keep physiological parameters constant; cancel a change E. None of the above /2. GLUT transporters are: TFWA Di. C— A. Never open to both sides of the membrane simultaneously B. An example of facilitated diffusion C. Gated channels D. Found on the apical side of the proximal tubule epithelium @ Both A and B \/ 3. Which of the following molecules can cross a membrane by siinfilgdiffilsl'nn? A. Urea B. Aldosterone C. ADH ,D- Serotonin E.) Only A and B \/ 4. Which of the following sets of substrates is cgfiransMed into the cells pf the thick ascending loop of Henle ? ““3.’ NaVCa“ b. Na+/glucose @ Na+lK+l2Cl d. Na+/I-I+ e. C1'/HC03' \/5. Which of the following sets of substrates is exchanged in the —@f myocardiaLcefls? =15) Na‘L/Ca++ b. Na+lglucose c. Na+/K+/2C1 d. Na+/I-I+ e. C1'/HC03' v50 \/6. Which of the following sets of substrates is coirfianspnrted into the cells of the proximal kidney tubule? Va. Na‘VCaM \0 ® Na+lglucose 630‘ c. Na+/K+/2Cl d. Na+/H* e. Cl'lI-IC03' BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology I. Final Examination Page 2 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer 4/ @Which of the following are true about Na+/K+ pumps? “ I. They do not contribute to repolarization of the membrane during an action potential. II. They move 3Na+ into the cell and 2K+ out of the cell III. The pump must be phosphorylated to release K+ inside cells IV. They generate electrochemical gradients for secondary active transport V. They are only located in the bajglgtgalmcmhrane of transport epithelial cells. a. I, II, 111, V only b. III, IV, V only c. I, IV, V only d. I and IV only e. All of the above 7 ._, . The electrical potential necessary to counterfit an ion’s concentration gradient can be calculated with the Nemst equation ”t Net ion flow through a membrane depends on both the permeability of the membrane to that ion and the driving force on that ion The Goldman equation reduces to the Nemst equation if the membrane is permeable to only one type of ion The driving force on an ion can be calculated with the Goldman equation It is possible for ions to flow passively through a membrane against their concentration gradient 4. .Which of the following is NOT TRUE about ion movements across membranes? A F1150?“ The following two questions are based on data below for an alien neuron. Assume Vrest = +60 mV, tem rrature = 30C _m— —__J 9. What is the Nemst equilibrium potential for Calcium? \ \5 \b’ m / 3 \O ’ a. 180 mV » 3' D‘ b. -l80mV 3;” 5&365'\da\\+\ \ c. 90 mV C‘ b c) d. -90 mV 0) ' a e. +60 mV ,‘fi/6 0\\ Which of these ions are ”W and in what direction? a. Ca++ out, Cl- out 50c5m‘o‘t’ ‘1 3 b. Ca++ in, CI- in Ca++ out, Br- in d. Ca++ in, Br- out e. Na+ out, Ca++ out. BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 3 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer For the following questions, Use the graphs that show recordings from an int tracellular e ode (membrane potential 1n mV 1n the ordinate axis vs time in ms in the abcissa). The level of the time axis (horizontal arrow) shows 0 mV The solid line shows the normal response to an above threshold stimulus. The dotted line shows the response to a stimulus afier the indicated treatment has had its full effect. Answer which treatment will result in the dotted graph shown. J 11. \ «“09- wt/ . addition of tetrae ylammonium (TEA), which blocks voltage- gated K-channels addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks voltage-gated Na-channels . addition of Ouabain, which inhibits (Na+,K+)ATPase . addition of KCl to the external solution so that [Kout] = [Kin] . treat the axon with scorpion toxin, which prevents Na-channel inactivation addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) addition of tetrodotoxin (TI'X) addition of Ouabain addition of KCl to the external solution so that [Kout] = [Kin] treat the axon with scorpion toxin, which prevents Na-channel inactivation 09.0.39 BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology I. Final Examination Page 4 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer Jig. a. addition of tetraethylammonium (TEA) b. addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) (o. addition of Ouabain - d. addition of KCl to the external solution so that [Kout] = [Kin] e. treat the axon with scorpion toxin, which prevents Na-channel inactivation Normal neuron with the exception of iv [Na+]om . Normal neuron with the exception of T [Na+]°m . Normal neuron with the exception of l [K+]i,. b c (1. Normal neuron with the exception of T [K+]in e. Normal neuron, with a much stronger stimulus \/15. The length constant of an axon is degreggdby: A. Myelin sheath (E Decreased diameter )4 C. Increased diameter D. Smaller number of voltage-gated Na+ channels E. Only A, C, and D 16. The absolute refractory period in nerve, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle action potentials: A. Limits the maximum fr_eg_u_ency of action potentials B. Ensures only forward propagation of action potentials / C. Is caused by inactivation of Na" channels / 6: All of the above E. None of the above BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 5 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer \/17. Which of the following pairs are both inhibitory neurotransmitters? a) Glutamate and GABA. b) Glycine and acetylcholine. c) GABA and acetylcholine. d Glycine and GABA. \— Acetylcholine and glutamate. The correct pair above is inhibitory because both of these neurotransmitters: A. open K-channels B. open Cl-channels C. close Na-channels D? all of the above " ’E. none of the above \/19. Which of the following is most likelygnot to be involved in causing Lor_1g/T3;m£otentiation? % NO )3: Ca++ C. NMDA receptors D. AMPA receptors @ Membrane hyperpolarization @ During a Voltage Clamp experiment you change the membrane potential from -§th_-l_0_0_mll. You gra h current (1) against time. The movement of ions and current directions are: ERI- Initial inward current (Nal) followed by large outward current (K+) ) Initial inward current (K‘) followed by large outward current (Na+) 0) Initial outward current (Na+) followed by inward current (K+) (1) Initial outward current (K+) followed by inward current (Nal) e) None because this stimulus doesn’t open ion channels @ Which of the following toxins attacks docking pm associated with vesicle fiision in the neuromuscular junction? Black Widow Venom b. Botulinum Toxin c. Nerve Gas d. Bungarotoxin , Ce?) Curare @ Which of the above toxins inhibits Alma—s \j 23. Remal of extracellular Ca2+ will prevent skeletal muscle contraction, except when: ‘ A. The stimulus is applied to mmoneuron LOW?“ ((20me B. The stimulus is applied to the motor axon 6). The stimulus is applied to the muscle fiber D. All of the above E. Only A and B O\ BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology I. Final Examination Page 6 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer \/24. Whicl>of the following pairs of adrener 'gegeptors cause excitatory responses? @ (11 and [31 H b. (12 and [32 c. on and a; d. Bl 311d 62 e. a; and [32 \/25. People with damage to this area @spoken and written language but are unable to express their response in normal syntax. A. Parietal lobe B. Corpus callosum C. ,7 Thalamus . @Broca’s area E. Wemicke’s area . In an accident, a person has injured his/hewor horns ofllumb spinal cord. What would be the effect of this injury? A. Ipsilateral leg paralysis Q Contralateral leg paralysis C. Ipsilateral loss of touch, and proprioception in the leg D. Ipsilateral loss of temperature and pain sensation in the leg E. Contralateral loss of temperature and pain sensation in the leg \/ 27. In an accident, a person has injured his/her l_a_te‘ral horns of sacral s inal cord. What would be the effect of this injury? < 9 {O A. Loss of sympathetic control of pelvic organs 5 O B. Loss of proprioception C. Leg paralysis ~ . . Loss of parasympathetic control of pelvic organs . None of the above «0‘0 28. In an accident, a person has injured his/her 1’th (pyramidal) track below the medulla. What would be the effect of this injury? \3 m“: jr V003 A. Ipsilateral loss of somatosensory of the body B. Contralateral loss of somatosensory of the body Yrcj Ipsilateral paralysis ofthe body D. Contralateral paralysis of the body E. Quadriplegia @@A person that survived a stroke in thefl posterior portion of the frontal lobe will have: A. Ipsilateral paralysis of the body B. Contralateral paralysis of the body C. Ipsilateral loss of somatosensory perception of the body D. Contralateral loss of somatosensory perception of the body 6 Both B and D / BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 7 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer .Wakefulness is regulated by the: a. Midbrain b. Pons c. Basal nuclei Cd) Reticular activating system c. Cerebellum \/ 31. Motor coordination is regulated by: a. Rostral part of the frontal lobe b. Caudal part of the frontal lobe c. Rostral part of the parietal lobe d‘ Cerebellum e. Corpus Callosum \/ 32. Most sensory information reaches the cortex after first being processed by the: a) basal ganglia b) brainstem Kc) alamus d) cerebellum e) limbic system f3. By removing this part of the brain you wouldn’t be able to remember anything you’ve learned in BIPN 100. A. Amygdala B. Basal ganglia C. Cerebellum D. Corpus Callosum (E) Hippocampus In the autonomic nervous system: a) The sympathetic branch has long pre-ganglionic axons. b) Both branches share the same pre-ganglionic neurotransmitter>l~ c) Both branches have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in their postganglionic neurons. (1) Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches never share the same targets. e) Both b and c. 35. A neurotransmitter or hormone causes release of _Cajl-;|;fi"em—intracelllllar stores. What specific G-protein and what second messenger(s) are in its signal pathway? N a. Gs, increase cAMP b. Gi, decrease cAMP c. Gq increase cAMP Gq increase 1P3 and DAG e. Gs increase [P3 and DAG BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology I. Final Examination Page 8 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer $6. Which of the following receptorwgadapno a stimulus and can be de-sensiti ‘ ? a. Proprioceptorsf b. Nociceptors c. Tonic receptors El) Phasic receptors / e. Baroreceptors \/37. Muscle spindle receptors: a) contain modified muscle fibers b) provide information concerning muscle length c) provide information on the rate of change of length d) can have their sensitivity altered by gamma motoneurons 9))" of the above @ In the stretchrefleggwhich of the following is E true? a) motoneurons innervating muscle of origin are excited b) motoneurons innervating synergistic muscles are excited c) motoneurons innervating antagonists are inhibited d) all responses occur via interneurons e) the receptor is the muscle spindle . Which hormone(s) enter(s) the mm a. CRH b. Dopamine re? GnRH d. Somatostatin e. All of the above .30 0 ,6» \/40. In Grave’s disease autoimmune antibodies Stillllllfite the TSH receptors of the thyroid gland in the absence of TSH. Such patients will have the following homona terations: a. T Thyroid hormones, T TSH, T TRH Cb) T Thyroid hormones, 1 TSH, 1 TRH c. T Thyroid hormones, 1 TSH, TTRH d. 1 Thyroid hormones, TTSH, 1 TRH e. 1 Thyroid hormones, 1 TSH, 1 TRH 4 . All of the following hormones have intracellular receptors that stimulate gene transc_rip_ti_gn, EXCEPT: / ’ ’ \\ ‘ a. Estrogen / ,7 I ‘\ \Q b. Thyroid hormones / “”359?“ c. Epinephrine / ‘6.) Cortisol e. Testosterone. / BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 9 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer C13. A largejnotormnit: a Consists of a single neuron that innervates many muscle fibers b. Is the functional unit in muscles that perform fine movements 0 Is involved in innervating the large muscles d. Is represented by a large area in the motor cortex ® All of the above \/43. ATP binding tom myosin in striated muscle: Changes the angle of the myosin heads from 45 to 90° before hydrolysis causes myosin to dissociate from actin is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi in the absence of Ca++ all of the above only b and c 09.0 g—pi @. In skeletal muscle: Ryanodine receptors physically open DI-IP receptors on the SR allowing Ca2 efflux. 6% Ca:+ influx depolarizes the t-tubules, allowing for excitation-contraction coupling.- c) Ca2+ binds to tropomyosin allowing myosin to bind to actin d) Unlike 1n smooth muscle, strength of contraction is dependent on the number of cross- bridges formed. e) Action potential 1n the t—tubule causes DHP receptors to open Ryanodine receptors in the SR, releasing Ca2+ ‘/45. Relaxation of smooth muscle involves all of the following except: a. Calcium rs pumped back into the endoplasmic reticulum b. Myosin phosphatase inhibitss myosin ATPase activity / c. Calcium rs pumped out of the cell via Na -Ca+2 antiports myosin light chain kinase 15 activated e. None of the above. All of the above choices are correct Q. Which of the following is(are) true about Starlingls Law of the Heart: a. Increasing the end-diastolic volume increases the force of contraction. b. Increasing the afterload increases the force of contraction Q Stretching the myocardial fibers increases the overlap between myosin heads and actin. d. All of the above ’e. Only a and c. Q. Cardiac muscle cannot be tetanized because: Contraction is nearly ové’r‘by/the time the refractory period ends . Ca++ enters during the plateau period of the action potential b c. The pacemakers cannot fire fast enough to sum the single contractions 6. all of the above e. none of the above \2\ BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology I. Final Examination Page 10 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer @ How are pacemaker cells in the heart able to depolarize without any external stimulus? a. Ca 2+ channels open while the cell is hyperpolarized causing a depolarization. @The cell resting potential is above threshold for the Ca 2+ channels so they open as soon as one action potential ends. c. I fimny channels are always open and allow for a gradual depolarization d. I funny channels open at hyperpolarized potentials e. K+ leak channels bring the cell to threshold after an action potential. \/49. Under sympathetic stimulation of autorrhythmic nodal cells, which of the following is(are) true? a. Decrease in duration of the Action Potential b. Slope of the depolarization wave increases c. There is a more rapid depolarization to threshold. @ All of the above e. None of the above. \flo. Which of the following will have a positive ignotropic effect? a. Muscarinic receptor blocker @ééfi J b. Norepinephrine / ’ c. Digoxin (inhibitor of Na,K—ATPase) @ Only (b) and (c) e. All of the above Below is PV diagram of a normal left ventricle. C B R Pressure Q “Y D A Q 5 Volume of Blood C5). Which of the following segments corresponds to the QT interval of the EKG? a. GA b. A-D-B-C c. C-A-D d. D-B-C @ B-C-A $2. Which points of the above diagram reflects the time when all of th valves are open? a. A b.D W c.B / BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 11 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer d. C ,4? None of the above \/53. Which of the following segments of the above graph reflects the isovolumetric relaxation period? '7 a. A-D b. DB 0. B-C (EDC-A . C-D \/ 54. Since the actionpotentials of cardiac muscle are reflected in the electrocardiogram, one can associate the time course of the events in the action potential with mm the waves in the ECG. Which interval in the ECG best corresponds to the lateau period of the action 'al‘in ventricular muscle? «9 (k T a.P-Q b.Q—S c.Q—T @s—T e.P—T W q 52 Given a constant pressure difference between its ends, blood flow will be 16 times greater in a blood vessel if its diameter is: a) reduced by one half b) doubled (ltiincreased 16-fold d) increased 4-fold e) increased 8-fold \/56. Which of the following will produce a diastolic murmur? 2‘“ a. Aortic valve stenosis b. Mitral valve insufficiency \ c. Aortic valve insufficiency d. Mitral valve stenosis @candd @ All of the following are typical after athletic training except: a. An increased stroke volume b. A decreased resting heart rate c. Increased sympathetic tone on the heart d. A larger maximum cardiac output e3 Increased diastolic period during rest What problem with the heart valves will causemdemal’ a. Tricuspid stenosis b. Mitral Stenosis 0. Pulmonary valve incompetence f)? d. Pulmonary valve stenosis / e. All of the above. BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. F inal Examination Page 12 Winter, 2006. March 21, 2006 Select the single best answer $9. What is the mean arterial pressure for a man that has 180/120? a. 60mmHg b. 80mmHg (09?: (20+ % (V50 ‘ no) c. 100mmHg d. IZOmmHg @ l40mmI-Ig \AO. All of the following are stimuli for WXGEFT: /a./ Decreased pH ,b.’ Decreased oxygen (32 Serotonin /d./‘Increased carbon dioxide e. adenosine @. Which of the following is will give rise to systemic edema? a. Lefi ventricular failure 7 @entricular failure owlncreased level of albumin d. Increased hydrostatic pressure of systemic tissue @om (b) and (d) \/62. An increase in arterial pressure will cause: afific—reased baroreceptor firing \/ b. decreased renin secretion 0. decreased angiotensin 11 d decreased aldosterone secretion all of the above \/63. You fly to London As you get off the plane you realize that your feet and ankles are hideously swollen and you can’t fit in to your expensive new shoes. This is because: a. The hydrostatic pressure in your veins decreased and the capillary pressure was less than the oncotic pressure which caused fluid to flow out. 1 b? The hydrostatic pressure in your veins increased and the capillary pressure was greater than the oncotic pressure which caused fluid to flow out. 0. You didn’t get up and walk around for the entire 16 hours. (1. Both a) and c) @Both b) and c) \/64. Which of the following are true statements about the renin-angiotensin system: I. it increases blood pressure / II. it increases vasoconstriction / 111. it decreases plasma volume IV. it is stimulated by a decrease in blood pressure/ \ V. renin is an enzyme and angiotensin II is a hormone / / BIPN 100, Mammalian Physiology 1. Final Examination Page 13 Winter, 2006. March 21 , 2006 Select the single best answer a. all are false b. I, 11, IV only are true c. III, V only are true 9 III only is false e. all are true ‘/65. Glomerular filtration rate(GFR) is the amount of blood is filtered in the glomerulus. Even though blood pressure can fluctuate between 80 and 180 mmHg, the GFR stays relatively constant. This is due to adjustments in afferent and efferent arterioles. What is changed if the systolic blood pressure rises to 170mmHg? <5? a. efferent arteriole will dilate /\\ A! 6‘"SK b. efferent arteriole will constrict {\o 'd‘ c. afferent arteriole will dilate 03 ”(390)“ (3 afferent arteriole will constrict C/ e. both b and c \/66. What segment of the nephron can contain hypertonic or hyggtgnic fluid in its lumen and cells with variable permeability to water and has receptors for antidiuretic hormone? a. Bowman’s capsule am \9 b. Proximal tubule mme‘r £3;me of Henle d. Distal tubule @ Collecting duct \/67. Which of the above always contains W 6'. Which of the following explain(s) how a high osmolarity in the kidney medulla is generated? 9 The ascending loop of Henle pumps Na to the interstitial fluid and is impermeable to water. J2./ The descending loop of Henle is permeable to water and ions The loop of Henle and vasa recta form a countercurrent multiplication mechanism. d. All of the above e. None of the above. The following are effects of aldosterone on the distal nephron! XCEPT: a. Increased Na and water reabs...
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