14_Jonathan Edwards_Part 1

14_Jonathan Edwards_Part 1 - The Enlightenment and The...

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The Enlightenment and The Great Awakening
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The Enlightenment 18th c. movement Decentralization of Religion and Religious Authority Wars of religion Religious divisions Skepticism (e.g., Descartes) Scientific progress Explained so much about the world without appealing to religious/biblical authority Demonstrated beliefs based on the Bible were wrong (e.g., heliocentric vs. geocentric view of the universe) Domination by the state and not religious authorities The Enlightenment was an attempt to establish a religion of reason based upon belief in natural law, universal order, and confidence in human reason. Reversed faith seeking understanding to reason seeking what is to be revealed.
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Particular Expressions of the Enlightenment Deism Attempt to establish a universal religion that is natural to humankind. Religion that is natural is not based upon revelation. Thus rejected supernaturalism in religion. Important Deists Lord Herbert of Cherbury 5 common elements of natural religion: (1) existence of God, (2) obligation to worship God, (3) ethical demands of this worship, (4) repentance, (5) rewards and punishment. Reduced religion to ethics and not traditional, dogmatic beliefs about God and Jesus. John Toland – Christianity not Mysterious, or a Treatise Showing that there Is Nothing in the Gospel Contrary nor Above It, and that no Christian Doctrine Can Be Properly Called a Mystery Matthew Tindal – Christianity as Old as the World, or the Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature
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Empiricism Knowledge is based upon experience. John Locke Certainty is based upon reason and judgment grounded in experience. Faith is knowledge from revelation about which there is no certainty. Thus there needed to be religious toleration. Privatizing of religion and removing it from the realm of state control or from having a role in the policies of the state. Thus, reason is the basis of law, government, and education Critical Responses to Empiricism: David Hume and Immanuel Kant Our experiences do not give us direct access things in themselves. What seems reasonable and rational is based upon our interpretation of our experiences.
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The Great Awakening and Jonathan Edwards
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6. Resolved to live with all my might while I do live 7. Resolved never to do anything I should be afraid to do if it were the last hour of my life. 10. Resolved when I feel pain to think of the pains of martyrdom and hell. 15. Resolved never to suffer the least motions of anger to irrational beings.
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14_Jonathan Edwards_Part 1 - The Enlightenment and The...

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