Ch.12.ppt - F07-2

Ch.12.ppt - F07-2 - Chapter 12 Motivation Definition A need...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Motivation Definition: A need or desire that serves to energize and direct behavior toward a goal (e.g., hunger, sexual motivation, achievement motivation) Why do people eat, have sex, form relationships, strive to achieve? Evolutionary Theory of Motivation Why are we motivated to do what we do? Survival Reproduction Mechanisms that facilitate survival and reproduction will be passed on to future generations. Mechanisms that do not are selected out. Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation Physiological needs create psychological states that drive one to reduce or satisfy the need. The aim of drive reduction is stability, or homeostasis. Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives Motivation starts at the most basic level with physiological needs that must first be satisfied then higher-level safety needs become active (safety & belongingness) then psychological needs become active (esteem & self-actualization) Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Esteem needs Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Safety needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst Physiological needs begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied then higher-level safety needs become active then psychological needs become active Motivation-Hunger The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions Hunger People report "feeling hungry" when glucose levels are low and insulin levels are high. When the lateral hypothalamus is stimulated, animals eat. When the ventromedial hypothalamus is stimulated, an animal will stop eating. If destroyed, animal gorges. Motivation-Hunger Set Point the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight body's base rate of energy expenditure Basal Metabolic Rate Obesity Body weight that is 20% over the "ideal" weight for your height, age, and sex. Health risk Obese people do not live as long as as their normal weight peers Greater risk of heart and kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, liver problems, and arthritis. Obesity BMI Below 18.5 underweight 18.5 - 24.9 Normal 25.0 - 29.9 Overweight 30 or above Obese BMI Formula [Weight in lbs/(height inches)2] x 703 Obesity Obese children are likely to be obese adults 30% of children are estimated to be overweight (1994) Environmental factors (e.g., TV, diet) can contribute to childhood obesity. Obesity Influences on obesity Heredity Eating habits Activity level Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa 1. 2. 3. 4. Failure to maintain 85% of "normal" body weight Fearful of weight gain Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) Distorted body image 95% of sufferers are female most are between the ages of 18-30 30% of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa die Women's Body Images Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa 1. 2. 3. 4. Binge eating Inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain (e.g., laxatives, vomiting) Binge-purge occurs at least 2 times a week for 3 mos. Preoccupation with body shape or weight. Reinforcement cycle Sexual orientation statistics 65% of tribal societies assume homosexual activities of some kind are socially acceptable 17 to 22% of women & men have engaged in some form of homosexual activity at least once Homosexual behavior does not always indicate homosexual orientation. Janus Report (1993) Have you have a homosexual experience? Men Women N = 1,335 1,384 Yes 22% 17% No 78% 83% Janus Report (1993) What is your sexual orientation? Men Women N = 1,333 1,411 Heterosexual 91% 95% Homosexual 4% 2% Bisexual 5% 3% Origins of Sexual Orientation Environmental Theories Is homosexuality linked with problems in a child's relationships with parents, such as a with a domineering mother and an ineffectual father, or a possessive mother and a hostile father? Does homosexuality involve a fear or hatred of people of the other gender, leading individuals to direct their sexual desires toward members of their own sex? As children, were many homosexuals molested, seduced, or otherwise sexually victimized by an adult homosexual? Origins of Sexual Orientation Homosexuality is more likely based on biological factors like differing brain centers, genetics, and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors. Animal Homosexuality A number of animal species are devoted to samesex partners, suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world. Wendell and Cass David Hecker/ AFP/ Getty Images The Brain In homosexual men, the size of the anterior hypothalamus is smaller (LeVay, 1991) and the anterior commissure is larger (Allen & Gorski, 1992). Anterior Commissure http://www.msu.edu Anterior Hypothalamus Genes & Sexual Orientation A number of reasons suggest that homosexuality may be due to genetic factors. 1. 2. Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families. Twin studies: Homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins. However, there are mixed results. 3. Fruit flies: Genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females. Concordance rate for MZ twins is about 4050% and 22% for DZ twins Prenatal Hormones Most of the research is with animal models However, some interesting human correlates have been found Some research reveals that homosexual individuals of both sexes have many traits that are intermediate between heterosexual females and males Sexual Orientation: Biology Sexual Motivation Four components of sexuality Biological sex (man, woman) Gender role (masculine, feminine) Gender identity (psychological sense of being male or female) Sexual orientation (hetero, homo, bi) The Science of Sexual Orientation Reorienting Therapies In 1973 APA voted unanimously to remove homosexuality from the official list of mental illnesses (DSM). sexual orientation is not a psychological disorder for which an individual can receive "treatment" to "cure". http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/copptherapyaddend Links http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/index.html Gregory Herek's webpage David Myers' webpage American Psychiatric Associations position statement on reparative therapies Resolution on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation (American Psychological Association) State same-sex relationship law maps http://www.davidmyers.org/Brix?pageID=16 http://www.psych.org/psych_pract/copptherapyaddendum http://www.apa.org/pi/sexual.html http://www.hrc.org/issues/marriage.asp The Physiology of Sex Masters and Johnson (1966) describe the human sexual response to consist of four phases: Phase Physiological Response expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges. Excitement Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina Plateau Orgasm Resolution Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure. Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release. Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve slower. The Science of Sexual Orientation 65% of tribal societies assume homosexual activities of some kind are socially acceptable 17 to 22% of women & men have engaged in some form of homosexual activity at least once Homosexual behavior does not always indicate homosexual orientation. Janus Report (1993) Have you have a homosexual experience? Men N= 1,335 Yes 22% No 78% Women 1,384 17% 83% Janus Report (1993) What is your sexual orientation? N= Heterosexual Homosexual Bisexual Men 1,333 91% 4% 5% Women 1,411 95% 2% 3% The Science of Sexual Orientation In 1973 APA voted unanimously to remove homosexuality from the official list of mental illnesses (DSM). sexual orientation is not a psychological disorder for which an individual can receive "treatment" to "cure". Origins of Sexual Orientation Homosexuality is more likely based on biological factors like differing brain centers, genetics, and parental hormone exposure rather than environmental factors. The Science of Sexual Orientation Environmental Theories (for which there is less scientific evidence) Freud: premature fixation during psychosexual development (due to dominant mother; absent father). East (1946) confused during time one learns appropriate sex roles Postnatal socialization (reared by lesbian mothers; see Golombok & Tasker, 1996) The Science of Sexual Orientation Biological Theories (for which there is more scientific evidence) Concordance rate for MZ twins is about 4050% and 22% for DZ twins Prenatal hormonalization of the brain influences subsequent sexual orientation. Money (1987). According to Ellis & Ames, a delicate balance of genetic, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors, largely occurring prior to birth, determine sexual orientation. Ellis & Ames (1987) Animal Homosexuality A number of animal species are devoted to samesex partners, suggesting that homosexuality exists in the animal world. Wendell and Cass David Hecker/ AFP/ Getty Images The Brain In homosexual men, the size of the anterior hypothalamus is smaller (LeVay, 1991) and the anterior commissure is larger (Allen & Gorski, 1992). Anterior Commissure http://www.msu.edu Anterior Hypothalamus Genes & Sexual Orientation A number of reasons suggest that homosexuality may be due to genetic factors. 1. 2. 3. Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families. Twin studies: Homosexuality is more common in identical twins than fraternal twins. However, there are mixed results. Fruit flies: Genetic engineers can genetically manipulate females to act like males during courtship and males to act like females. Sexual Orientation: Biology The Science of Sexual Orientation Homophobic people tend to: Hold traditional views Be older Have conservative religious beliefs Hold stereotypical views of men/women Be less educated Live in rural areas ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/14/2008 for the course PSY 1305 taught by Professor Rowatt during the Fall '07 term at Baylor.

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