Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13: Emotion Psychological responses that involve and interplay between:
1. 2. 3. physiological arousal (e.g., heart pound) expressive behavior (e.g., run) conscious experience (e.g., see Tiger & interpret as a threat) James-Lange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli Do different emotions have diff phys signatures?
Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Pounding heart (arousal) Fear (emotion) Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Pounding heart (arousal) Emotion-arousing
stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses subjective experience of
emotion Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Fear (emotion) Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Pounding heart (arousal) Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus) Fear (emotion) To experience
emotion one must: be physically
aroused cognitively label the arousal
(usually according to context) "Misattribution of arousal" Cognitive label "I'm afraid" The physiology of emotion In an emergency, the sympathetic nervous system initiates the fight or flight response The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body. Emotion and Physiology
Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal Sympathetic division (arousing) Pupils dilate Decreases Perspires Increases Accelerates Inhibits Secrete stress hormones EYES SALIVATION SKIN RESPIRATION HEART DIGESTION ADRENAL GLANDS Parasympathetic division (calming) Pupils contract Increases Dries Decreases Slows Activates Decreases secretion of stress hormones Physiological Arousal & Performance Performance When is usually best when arousal is moderate; however,
the task is easy, peak performance comes w/ relatively high arousal When the task is very difficult, optimal performance comes w/ less arousal Arousal and Performance Performance level Difficult tasks Easy tasks Low Arousal High Detecting Deception Polygraph It measures several physiological indicators of emotion
more often labels the innocent guilty, than the guilty innocent. Emotion-Lie Detectors Control
Up Question Question > Control = Lie to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone? the deceased threaten to harm you in any way? Relevant
Did Relevant Emotion-Lie Detectors
Respiration Perspiration Heart rate Control Relevant question question (a) Control question Relevant question (b) Emotion-Lie Detectors
Percentage 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Innocent people Guilty people 50 Innocents 50 Thieves 1/3 of innocent declared guilty 1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)
Judged innocent by polygraph Judged guilty by polygraph Expressing Emotion
Are emotional expressions universal? Cross-cultures Blind Babies Expressed Emotion Culturally universal expressions Experienced Emotion Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Feel-good, do-good phenomenon people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood Experienced Emotion Subjective Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life used along with measures of objective wellbeing physical and economic indicators to evaluate people's quality of life Experienced Emotion Changing materialism Experienced Emotion Does money buy happiness?
$20,000 $19,000 $18,000 100% $17,000 $16,000 90% $15,000 80% $14,000 70% $13,000 Personal income $12,000 60% $11,000 50% $10,000 Percentage very happy 40% $9,000 30% $8,000 $7,000 20% $6,000 10% $5,000 0% $4,000 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Average per-person after-tax income in 1995 dollars Percentage describing themselves as very happy Year Experienced Emotion Values and life satisfaction
0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Money Importance scores Love Life satisfaction Happiness Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Relative-Deprivation Principle Predictors of happiness Happiness is...
Researchers Have Found That Happy People Tend to Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage Have work and leisure that engage their skills Have a meaningful religious faith Sleep well and exercise However, Happiness Seems Not Much Related to Other Factors, Such as Age Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful) Education levels Parenthood (having children or not) Physical attractiveness ...
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- Fall '07
- oncoming car