ch05 - Principles and Learning Objectives E-commerce is a...

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Unformatted text preview: Principles and Learning Objectives E-commerce is a new way of conducting business, and as with any other new application of technology, it presents both opportunities for improvement and potential problems. Identify several advantages of e-commerce. Identify some of the major challenges that companies must overcome to succeed in e-commerce and mcommerce. Describe some of the current uses and potential benefits of m-commerce. Identify several e-commerce applications. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 2 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) E-commerce requires the careful planning and integration of a number of technology infrastructure components. Outline the key components of technology infrastructure that must be in place for e-commerce to succeed. Discuss the key features of the electronic payment systems needed to support e-commerce. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 3 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) An organization's transaction processing system (TPS) must support the routine, day-to-day activities that occur in the normal course of business and help a company add value to its products and services. Identify the basic activities and business objectives common to all TPSs. Explain some key control and management issues associated with TPSs. Identify the challenges multinational corporations must face in planning, building, and operating their TPSs. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 4 Principles and Learning Objectives (continued) Implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system enables a company to achieve many benefits by creating a highly integrated set of systems. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with the implementation of an ERP system. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 5 An Introduction to Electronic Commerce Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce: customers deal directly with the organization, avoiding any intermediaries Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce: participants are organizations Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce: participants are individuals, with one serving as the buyer and the other, the seller Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 6 The E-Commerce Supply Chain Supply chain management is a key value chain composed of: Demand planning Supply planning Demand fulfillment Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 7 The E-Commerce Supply Chain (continued) Figure 5.1: Supply Chain Management Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 8 The E-Commerce Supply Chain (continued) E-commerce supply chain management allows businesses an opportunity to achieve: Increased revenues and decreased costs Improved customer satisfaction Inventory reduction across the supply chain Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 9 Mobile Commerce Mobile commerce (m-commerce) relies on the use of wireless devices, such as personal digital assistants, cell phones, and smart phones, to place orders and conduct business Issues confronting m-commerce User-friendliness of the wireless device Network speed Security Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 10 Mobile Commerce (continued) Handheld devices used for m-commerce have limitations that complicate their use Wireless application protocol (WAP): a standard set of specifications for Internet applications that run on handheld, wireless devices Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 11 E-Commerce Applications: Retail and Wholesale Electronic retailing (e-tailing): the direct sale from business to consumer through electronic storefronts, typically designed around an electronic catalog and shopping cart model Cybermall: a single Web site that offers many products and services at one Internet location Manufacturing, repair, and operations (MRO) goods and services Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 12 Manufacturing To raise profitability and improve customer service, many manufacturers move their supply chain operations onto the Internet Electronic exchange: an electronic forum where manufacturers, suppliers, and competitors buy and sell goods, trade market information, and run backoffice operations Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 13 Manufacturing (continued) Figure 5.3: Model of an Electronic Exchange Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 14 Marketing Market segmentation: the identification of specific markets to target them with advertising messages Technology-enabled relationship management: use of detailed information about a customer's behavior, preferences, needs, and buying patterns to set prices, negotiate terms, tailor promotions, add product features, and otherwise customize the entire relationship with that customer Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 15 Investment and Finance Online stock trading Portfolio tracker Online banking Electronic bill presentment Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 16 E-commerce Technology, Infrastructure, and Development Figure 5.4: Key E-Commerce Technical Components Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 17 Hardware Storage capacity and computing power required of the Web server depends on: Software that will run on the server Volume of e-commerce transactions Web site hosting Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 18 Software Security and identification Retrieving and sending Web pages Web page construction Static Web page Dynamic Web page Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 19 Software (continued) E-commerce software must support: Catalog management Product configuration Shopping-cart facilities Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 20 Software (continued) Figure 5.5: Electronic Shopping Cart Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 21 Electronic Payment Systems Digital certificate: an attachment to an e-mail message or data embedded in a Web page that verifies the identity of a sender or a Web site Electronic cash: an amount of money that is computerized, stored, and used as cash for e-commerce transactions Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 22 Electronic Payment Systems (continued) Electronic wallet: a computerized stored value that holds credit card information, electronic cash, owner identification, and address information Credit card Charge card Debit card Smart card Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 23 An Overview of Transaction Processing Systems Provide data for other business processes: Management information system/decision support system (MIS/DSS) Special-purpose information systems Process the detailed data necessary to update records about the fundamental business operations Include order entry, inventory control, payroll, accounts payable, accounts receivable, and the general ledger. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 24 An Overview of Transaction Processing Systems (continued) Figure 5.6: TPS, MIS/DSS, and Special Information Systems in Perspective Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 25 Traditional Transaction Processing Methods and Objectives Batch processing system: method of computerized processing in which business transactions are accumulated over a period of time and prepared for processing as a single unit or batch Online transaction processing (OLTP): computerized processing in which each transaction is processed immediately, without the delay of accumulating transactions into a batch Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 26 Traditional Transaction Processing Methods and Objectives (continued) Figure 5.7: Batch Versus Online Transaction Processing Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 27 Transaction Processing Activities TPSs Capture and process data that describes fundamental business transactions Update databases Produce a variety of reports Transaction processing cycle: the process of data collection, data editing, data correction, data manipulation, data storage, and document production Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 28 Transaction Processing Activities (continued) Figure 5.8: Data Processing Activities Common to TPSs Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 29 Transaction Processing Activities (continued) Data collection Should be collected at source Should be recorded accurately, in a timely fashion Data editing Data correction Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 30 Transaction Processing Activities (continued) Data manipulation Data storage Document production and reports Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 31 Basic TPS Applications Table 5.4: Systems That Support Order Processing Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 32 Order Processing Systems (continued) Figure 5.10: Order Processing Systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 33 Purchasing and Accounting Systems Purchasing transaction processing systems include: Inventory control Purchase-order processing Receiving Accounts payable Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 34 Purchasing and Accounting Systems (continued) Accounting transaction processing systems include: Budget Accounts receivable Payroll Asset management General ledger Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 35 Purchasing and Accounting Systems (continued) Figure 5.11: Integration of a Firm's TPSs Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 36 TPS Control and Management Issues Business continuity planning: identification of the business processes that must be restored first in the event of a disaster and specification of what actions should be taken and who should take them to restore operations Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 37 Transaction Processing System Audit Does the system meet the business need for which it was implemented? What procedures and controls have been established? Are these procedures and controls being used properly? Are the information systems and procedures producing accurate and honest reports? Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 38 International Issues Issues that multinational corporations face in planning, building, and operating their TPSs Different languages and cultures Disparities in IS infrastructure Varying laws and customs rules Multiple currencies Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 39 Enterprise Resource Planning: An Overview of Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are used in large, midsized, and small companies Real-time monitoring of business functions Timely analysis of key issues, such as quality, availability, customer satisfaction, performance, and profitability Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 40 An Overview of Enterprise Resource Planning (continued) Steps in running a manufacturing organization using an ERP system: Develop demand forecast Deduct demand forecast from inventory Determine what is needed for production Check inventory for needed raw materials Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 41 An Overview of Enterprise Resource Planning (continued) Steps in running a manufacturing organization using an ERP system (continued): Schedule production Assess need for additional production resources Financial forecasting Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 42 Advantages and Disadvantages of ERP Elimination of costly, inflexible legacy systems Improvement of work processes Increase in access to data for operational decision making Upgrade of technology infrastructure Expense and time in implementation Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 43 Advantages and Disadvantages of ERP (continued) Difficulty implementing change Difficulty integrating with other systems Risks in using one vendor Risk of implementation failure Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 44 Summary In business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce, customers deal directly with the organization In business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce, the participants are organizations In consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce, the participants are individuals Supply chain management is composed of demand planning, supply planning, and demand fulfillment Mobile commerce (m-commerce) uses wireless devices to place orders and conduct business Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 45 Summary (continued) Transaction processing systems (TPSs) process the detailed data necessary to update records about the fundamental business operations Transaction processing cycle: data collection, data editing, data correction, data manipulation, data storage, and document production Order processing TPSs: order entry, sales configuration, shipment planning, shipment execution, inventory control, invoicing, customer relationship management, and routing and scheduling Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 46 Summary (continued) Purchasing TPSs: inventory control, purchase-order processing, receiving, and accounts payable Accounting TPSs: budget, accounts receivable, payroll, asset management, and general ledger Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems permit timely analysis of key issues, such as quality, availability, customer satisfaction, performance, and profitability Fundamentals of Information Systems, Third Edition 47 ...
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