A&P Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Zool 2013 Fall 07 The...

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Chapter 2 Zool 2013 Fall 07 The Chemical Level of Organization Lecture Outline Dr. Navin Maswood
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INTRODUCTION Since chemicals compose your body and all body activities are chemical in nature, it is important to become familiar with the language and fundamental concepts of chemistry.
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The Chemical Level of Organization Matter: atoms and molecules (structure & chemical properties Chemical bonds : ionic, covalent & hydrogen bonds Chemical energy : potential & kinetic Chemical reactions : exergonic, endergonic, anabolism, catabolism, exchange & reversible reactions Inorganic compounds : water & its properties as a solvent, acids, bases, salts Organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids & proteins (basic structures & types)
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Chemical Elements Matter exists in 3 states: A) Solids: Have definite shape & volume. Ex. Bones & teeth. B) Liquids: Have definite volume, but assumes shape of the container: Ex: Blood plasma, interstitial fluids. c) Gases: Has neither definite shape or volume. Ex. Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) Table 2.1:List of main chemical elements in the human body.
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Fig. 2. 1 Structure of an atom: The smallest unit of matter or element. Dense central core: Nucleus contains subatomic particles: a) Positively charged protons (p +) b) Uncharged neutrons (n 0 ) c) Negatively charged electrons move about in a large space around the nucleus (e - )
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Properties of Atoms Atomic Number : The no. of protons in the nucleus of an atom (fig 2.2). Ex: Oxygen has atomic no of 8, sodium has atomic no. of 11 Mass Number: Is the sum of its protons & neutrons (fig 2.2). Ex: Sodium (Na) has 11 protons & 12 neutrons, mass no. is 23. Isotope: Are atoms of an element that have different no. of neutrons but same number of protons & thus, different mass numbers. Ex: 16 O, 17 O and 18 O. Stable & have identical chemical properties.
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Properties of Atoms (continued) Radioactive Isotopes: An element with 2 or more extra neutrons may be radioactive. Unstable, nuclei decay spontaneously into more stable configuration. As they decay their atoms emit radiation.
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Fig. 2. 2
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Properties of Atoms (continued) The Atomic Mass: Also known as atomic weight of an element is the average mass of all its naturally occurring isotopes. Close to the mass no. of its most abundant isotope. Dalton: The standard unit for measuring the mass of an atom and their subatomic particles.
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Chemical Properties of Atoms We identify the atomic shells alphabetically starting at K for the smallest shell. K – 2 electrons, L – 8 electrons, M – 18 electrons, N – 18 electrons & so on. Usually, only the electrons in the outer most shell (s) are available to interact chemically and these are known as valence electrons.
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Chemical Bonding Based on Atomic Properties Electrons want a stable energy configuration usually 8 in the outer shell and this is known as the Octet Rule .
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