Study Guide 1

Study Guide 1 - Study Guide #1 1) What is the difference...

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Study Guide #1 1) What is the difference between sensation and perception? a. Sensation – process of receiving information form the senses b. Perception – conscious experience of sensation (we only perceive about 5% of what our sense organs bring in and often times these sensations are distorted or added on to by our own cognitive processes to form our perception) c. Reality – what the brain tells us is real 2) What is transduction? Be prepared to provide an example of what other critters can transduce that we human mortals cannot…and what our experiences would be if we had this ability (such as an ability to transduce infrared). a. Transduction – literally means the changing of one form of energy into another. Our sense organs do this by taking outside stimulus (light, sound waves, pressure, temperature) and translate them into electrical signals that travel along our nerves. b. Some animals are thought to be able to detect the magnetic poles of the earth so that penguins, for example, can tell exactly where the same mating and hunting spots are and how to move between them each season even though the frozen continent of Antarctica is constantly moving. If people had this sense then it would be like we had a GPS system in our heads all the time. We’d never get lost and rarely would we need maps, because the roads we would produce would probably naturally run true north to true south with east and west streets in between. 3) What are the proximal versus distal senses? a. Proximal Senses – contact with environment (touch, taste) i.Produces quick responses to immediate environmental threats b. Distal Senses – sensing things in the environment from a distance (sight, sound) i.Helps one to pick up on danger from farther away, before its too late 4) What occurs during a neuron’s action potential? a. Neuron Physiology: cell body with a nucleus in it has dendrites that receive signals that then travel down the axons that send information through the synapses b. An axon is a sort of tube filled with a salty liquid substance and surrounded by a fatty myelin sheath that keeps in the electrical signals that are produced. c. An axon is usually at a resting potential of about 70 millivolts. When an axon is first excited the permeability of the axon fluctuates to let in positive sodium ions, which creates a rapid increase in positive charge within the axon (1/1000s). This increase in charge is called the action potential, it is the electrical signal that transmits information between neurons. As this charge travels down the axon the permeability shifts again, letting out the positive potassium ions, which returns the axon charge back to its original resting potential of 70 millivolts (1/1000s). d.
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Study Guide 1 - Study Guide #1 1) What is the difference...

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