Visual Cues

Visual Cues - I Visual Cues Binocular Vision(bottom-up...

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10.7.5 Visual Cues I) Binocular Vision (bottom-up processing) – attains depth through 3 processes a. Convergence – degree of the angle in which the eyes converge to see an object i.The muscles send a single to the brain and the angle of your eyes tells your brain how close the object is b. Horopter – where the object falls relative to the fovea, which is occupied by a given fixation point i.Uncrossed Disparity – image falls on the inside of both retinas (farther) ii.Cross Disparity – image falls on the outside of both retinas (closer) c. Binocular Disparity – seeing the same object from slightly different angles in each eye and these two images being overlapped to create a 3d image of object i.Magic Eye – two images (pattern of dots) taken at slightly different angles are overlapped over each other so that the eyes see both angles at once and overlap them in your brain, creating the 3d object II) Monocular/Spatial Cues (top-down processing) – attains depth without depth perception created by having two eyes a. Relative Size – something appears closer when the image take up more room on the retina (looks bigger) b. Interposition – partial occlusion of objects (apparent overlapping), the object that is fully exposed is assumed to be closest c. Arial Perspective and Clearness – things that are farther away look more blurry and less clear (due to particles/heat in the air) d. Light and Shadow – since we assume light comes from overhead the way things are shaded tells us the objects shape e. Linear Perspective – lines going away from you get closer together towards the vanishing point f. Texture Gradient – objects that are farther away are closer together and those that are closer are farther apart from each other III) Top-down Processing : a. Our Brains make meaning of sensory information and then change our perception b. Since we only get 5% of sensory information, we assume and fill in a lot of what we perceive c. So we make assumptions (based off of experience and expectations [schemas]) and only perceive what’s highlighted/novel/interesting and fill in the rest i.Brains are set up to pay attention to novel or really interesting stimuli IV) Middle Vision – how we perceive things even when they actually aren’t hitting our retina in such a way that we can a. Like how you pick out objects from just the edges of things (which is what simple cells pick up) and even if you cannot see all the edges you can still recognize it i.Recognition – matching what you perceive with memories of it b. We develop many rules that helps us to make contours from things we do sense V) Rules of Top-down Processing and Perception : a. Gestalt Groupings – perceptual whole is more than the individual parts i.Our brains cannot stop themselves from seeing the whole picture, instead of just the individual parts, and making meaning of it b. Partial Occlusion – make assumptions that objects that are incompletely seen are being occluded by other objects so we mentally complete them, even though we
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Visual Cues - I Visual Cues Binocular Vision(bottom-up...

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