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Unformatted text preview: Vow- Vows were taken by crusaders when taking the cross. It has a binding religious connotation. Originally taken by pilgrims going to Jerusalem, who were on a peregrinatio religiosa. The exact terms of the crusading vow are not known, but there was a promise to pilgrimage to Jerusalem and liberate it by force. The cross was a sign that a crusader had taken the vow. Gregorian reform- Begun by Pope Gregory VII. It was linked with a movement to improve monastic life. It was a movement to stop the pollution of church/religious life, especially by Emperors. It joined spiritual reform and one for political independence of the Church around Rome. It was the first distinction between the temporal and the spiritual parts of the Church. One idea was to save as many people as possible. The pope also wanted a command structure so that he would be obeyed. Caesaropapism- was the process by which the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire would put new popes in power when his original choice died. It led to the Emperor being able to have a large say in who was the new pope. It was begun when Henry III crossed the Alps to Rome and put in his choice as pope. Simony- The sin of Simon Magnus. It involved buying and selling spiritual things for money. It was very common in bishoprics. It also involved paying for offices in the Church. It was done commonly for power, and it placed people in powerful positions, who were for the most part not concerned with the actual welfare of the Chruch. Lay Investiture- Is the process by which people were appointed to ecclesiastical offices by Lords and Kings. This allowed their supporters to be in church offices. This gave the lay people power over the church at least to a degree. It was one of the problems that Gregorian Reform was trying to combat. Milites Sancti Petri- Were originally supporters of the Pope. Translates to Soldiers of Holy Peter. They eventually became real soldiers for the Pope. The idea eventually became milies Christi. Warriors of Christ. This term was eventually adopted by the crusaders. Penance- Christians thought that they had to do something to pay the debt of their sins. This is called penance. Various penances were imposed by church officials. A pilgrimage was a penance. The remission of sins given during the crusades covered at least penance given by church officials, although not necessarily the guilt one had to God. Pilgrimage- A journey to a holy place so that one would be able to fulfill their penance. Pilgrimages sometimes included a vow, but one was certainly not always taken. It is argued that a crusade was an armed pilgrimage, in which the crusaders took a vow to go to Jerusalem and to retake the holy land....
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